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20 Reasons Why You Should Join AIESEC


Go on a work abroad experience, develop your leadership skills.

Network and meet new people in your university, around Nigeria and in the 124 countries we are present in.

Be part of a network of ambitious and talented AIESEC leaders around the world and utilize this network for the rest of your life.

Get the opportunity to travel to different places through the various conferences within and outside Nigeria.

Find a suitable Mentor who can guide you through your career decisions and many life experiences.

Cultivate a global mindset and develop entrepreneurial outlook in a flexible & customizable work environment.

Increase awareness on things outside your text book through practical experience and on the job learning.

Get the opportunity to put theory into practice and gain practical international experience.

Being in charge and leading of a team of 5-20 people, to develop leadership skills and competencies through practical application.
Gain experience in leading and managing a not-for-profit organization.

Get a competitive advantage for any job you will apply for in the future or career you want to pursue, and advance your employability.

Obtain experience with sales and account management towards local and multinational companies.

Engage in event planning or training in your areas of expertise.

Run an exchange project focused on a hopt topic.

Learn to strategically plan, budget and mobilise other people to achieve goals.
Train/facilitate at conferences.

Learn how to package and communicate your unique experience to organisations.

Network with companies who want access to talented young people.

Take your next steps in your career/future; put your plan into action.


The opportunities AIESEC offers are vast. Your AIESEC experience is up to you. It is a question of exploring the opportunities of the global network and building a foundation for a career in your area of interest. So if you would you like to diversify your CV and widen your skills by working in a collaborative environment with ambitious students, join AIESEC.

So, what do you think? Are these 20 benefits for you? If so then,

Join AIESEC Today

For More Information visit


Or contact
08181956620, 08101622244


Click to buy now!


Why Join AIESEC?

AIESEC offers you an opportunity to put theory into practice and gain practical international experience.
This will give you a competitive advantage for any job you will apply for in the future or career you want to pursue.
As a member, you will obtain experience with sales and account management towards local and multinational companies, run an exchange project focused on a hot topic, engage in event planning or training in your
areas of expertise. The opportunities are plentiful. As the work excites you and you want more, you may
take up the challenge of leading a team and
influencing the strategic direction of your local office, take charge of negotiations with key stakeholders or run an international 5-days conference with 200 delegates just to mention a few options.
Think of the value of the practical experience of for
• Being in charge and leading of a team of 5-20 people
• Spending your summer going on a short-term internships.
• Making the annual branding and sales strategies for
your local office
• Being in charge of member development interviews,
and training of members
• Negotiating partnerships with companies on your 2nd year of university
Your AIESEC experience is up to you. It is a question of exploring the opportunities of the global network and
building a foundation for a career in your area of
interest. So if you would you like to diversify your CV
and widen your skills by working in a collaborative
environment with ambitious students, join AIESEC.

Are you ready to embrace a new world of opportunities
where you can design your own career path? AIESEC
offers you from hardcore skills training highly regarded
by any future employer to personal vision and goal-
setting. Our training walks hand in hand with
opportunities for putting your skills, passion and vision
into practice.
We offer to develop your professional skills toolbox
while exploring and discovering your potential and
what you want to do with your life.
In practical terms we offer:
• Develop leadership skills and competencies through
practical application
• Gain experience in leading and managing a not-for-
profit organisation.
• Learn to strategically plan, budget and mobilise other
people to achieve goals
• Train/facilitate at conferences
• Be part of a network of ambitious and talented
AIESEC leaders around the world and utilise this
network for the rest of your life
• Learn how to package and communicate your unique
experience to organisations
• Network with companies who want access to talented
young people
• Take your next steps in your career/future, put your
plan into action

We wish to allow our members to find and invest their
vision and passion in our activities. We cultivate
mentorship relationships to provide a supportive space
for feedback and guidance to your personal reflections.
You will be exposed to situations that will challenge
you and your leadership and give you confidence while
often fundamentally change the role you see yourself
having. Interacting and working with a group of globally
minded fellow students provide new perspectives on
yourself and how you see the world. Through our
conferences and connecting with people of a similar
passion, AIESEC can provide infusions of inspirations
for you to unleash your potential.
Leadership Development

With AIESEC you can jump-start your leadership career.
In fact, AIESEC offers over 6,500 leadership positions
each year at the local, national and international level.

So what. Are you waiting for?

You could also visit our opportunities portal @

Why You Shouldn’t Join AIESEC


I joined AIESEC in May this year regardless of what I heard about this organization. Through the years I’ve tried to develop myself, it was a great process really learnt some hard and soft skills and what it’ll take to become a leader but I also need to learn to work in a team. So I took that bold step and some may ask why did it took this long. People that want to remain in the same place will only tell you the negatives about something while they contribute less. I saw jobs came to me through AIESECers and it still does then I made a bold step to join myself.
However, if you know the good stuff about
something you experienced you must as well know the bad stuff about it. So here are 5 reasons why you shouldn’t join AIESEC:


You are still a student, one or
two years in the university, or you maybe just joined it, and you find yourself already working for some organization, having a full time job, contacting enterprises and meeting CEOs, organizing professional events, managing people, leading a
team through a certain period, being part of a team, doing plans and backup plans, thinking about how to use your resources in a perfect way. You will become a professional since a young age while you’re still in college.


Usually, normal CVs don’t take more than two minutes to write and prepare, yours will take at least hours. After joining AIESEC, with all the experience you have, the skills you developed and the things you’ve done, you wouldn’t be able to make them fit on a 2 page CV. It will be so hard for you to list them all on a single CV, it is a hard task come on.


You have prejudged a certain race, certain country or certain region? In AIESEC, you will lose them all. You will meet a lot of new people from different countries, different races and different regions in national or
international conferences. You will visit a lot of new countries and get to know their true culture. You will have friends there, and by that you will lose everything bad you have in mind about them because you will know them for what they truly are.
You will finally figure out that you were wrong and end up changing your mind about the world.


Networking is one of the most important things in AIESEC. You will have a huge network of professionals you worked with on events, you will have a network of friends you met on conferences and people you engaged by AIESEC activities. So you will have a lot of visit cards and you will a hard time organizing your contact list and that will drive you crazy.


You are still young; you want to have fun, party and live your life to the fullest. You can’t believe that you will be wearing a suit and tie and going to important meetings. You are still young for big causes and that
complicated stuff. In AIESEC, you will learn the value of volunteering, you’ll be part of a non for profit organization and will work for free, you will start believing in a certain cause, defending it and actually fighting for it. You will try to change the world and achieve peace.

The thing about AIESEC is that once you join it you go to a completely new level. You change your mindset, you will join a professional world, you will experience leadership in every action you make, and you will become an entrepreneur and have the chance to develop yourself in a Global Learning Environment. You will change lives, impact society, help people, join a cause, develop skills, become a Leader, get to be an entrepreneur, become better and seek the best for the world, for your country, for people around you and for yourself. You will become a Change Agent.

So what is your excuse not to join this magnificent world?

What’s your excuse not to join AIESEC


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James: 08030571948

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African Communalism versus Western Individualism:

African Communalism versus Western
Individualism: A false dichotomy
Posted by Graham Knight
This post is the personal opinion of the author and
may not reflect the views of the Humanist
Association of Ghana.
Professor Osei’s presentation at the International
Humanist Conference in Accra, 2012 entitled The
Relevance of Secular Humanism to the
Contemporary African Society asserted that the
Western construct of Humanism is bringing
excessive individualism to Africa in opposition to
its traditional values of communalism. Professor
Osei also said we need to think about the issue of
LGBT rights within this context.
To find a distinctly African expression of
humanism sounds like an attractive project, yet
the assertion has also been bothering me. I have
been pondering on these issues since that
presentation and hope I may have found a
resolution to the apparent conflict.
We need to recognise that the use of the terms
African and Western are problematic short-hands
in this context, because they group together
different cultures, seeing them as uniform. We all
know there is no country called Africa yet so often
people talk of the West as a place.
Also, sadly, I doubt that humanism is currently as
influential as to bear such a great influence on the
collective consciousness of Ghanaians as to lead
them into excessive individuality. Rather I would
argue that it is the economic system we live under
and urban life which is eroding communal ways of
I also believe there is a false dichotomy between
the individual and the collective. The benefits of
the collective are also expressed through the
benefits to the individual and if our individual
needs were not being met the collective would not
survive. Instead, we need to see the relationship
between communalism and individual rights as a
dialectical one.
In the past communalism was often maintained
through rules and taboos. Today everything is to
be questioned. For example we now challenge the
purity of ethnic groups by customs prohibiting
marriage between certain groups. This process
cannot be halted.
So we are now faced with making conscious moral
choices about the way we live with others which
humanism can inform. Communal ways of living
are certainly becoming more difficult with
modernity, but ways of caring for others are still
possible. The emergence of the State has also
taken over many of the responsibilities that
communities or individuals once had. The
functions of communalism now take
different forms although its appearance
has changed.
The ‘West’ is often accused of being individualistic
but this ignores the ways in which solidarity and
social responsibility still exist. Examples in the UK
for example, would be the tax contributions
individuals make to the welfare state which
provides cheap rent, free health care, money given
for the upbringing of your children , allowances
when you are unemployed or disabled and state
pensions. People also do voluntary work for ethical
causes, donate to charity, give blood, adopt
children, set up and work within community
neighbourhood projects, etc.
Human rights therefore, far from being due to
excessive individualism should be seen within the
context of the collective. Where individualism
separates people into different groups and assigns
them superior or devalued statuses, atomising
society, human rights recognises our common
The contemporary colonial legalistic and religious
condemnation of people with same-sex desire
creates false divisions and embodies forms of
sexual desire within the individual. The fight for
LGBT rights should not therefore be seen as
western individualism but as welcoming people
into the collective and acknowledging the role they
can also play as human beings.
Our job as humanists is to alert people to the
necessity of making moral choices about how we
connect and interact with those around us and to
find practical solutions to those challenges.

Jesus Son of God And Man

Jesus, Son of God, Son of Man
by Lambert Dolphin
Why God Became a Man?
The religion page in the Saturday newspaper these
days treats Jesus as a great moral teacher whose
words we may or may not have accurately recorded
for us in the gospels. Jesus may have been a
remarkable teacher, but so was Confucius, Buddha,
or Mohammed.
The disciples of Jesus, and the majority of the Jews
who enthusiastically followed the Master at the
beginning of his public ministry clearly hoped he
would bring in the kingdom of God by throwing out
the Roman overlords and bringing Israel back to the
glory the nation had in the days of Solomon.
Reading through the gospels there is plenty of
evidence that Jesus’ teachings were inexhaustibly
rich and profound and authoritative. His miracles
were real and brought much relief from pain,
suffering and even death. His manhood, lived out in
total dependence on the indwelling Father, was
startling to many because no man living or dead had
ever come close to measuring up to Jesus’
demonstration of what God intended normal
manhood to be.
While the people pressed upon him to hear the word
of God, he was standing by the lake of Gennesaret.
And he saw two boats by the lake; but the fishermen
had gone out of them and were washing their nets.
Getting into one of the boats, which was Simon’s, he
asked him to put out a little from the land. And he sat
down and taught the people from the boat. And when
he had ceased speaking, he said to Simon, “Put out
into the deep and let down your nets for a catch.”
And Simon answered, “Master, we toiled all night
and took nothing! But at your word I will let down the
nets.” And when they had done this, they enclosed a
great shoal of fish; and as their nets were breaking,
they beckoned to their partners in the other boat to
come and help them. And they came and filled both
the boats, so that they began to sink.
But when Simon Peter saw it, he fell down at Jesus’
knees, saying, “Depart from me, for I am a sinful
man, O Lord.” For he was astonished, and all that
were with him, at the catch of fish which they had
taken; and so also were James and John, sons of
Zebedee, who were partners with Simon. And Jesus
said to Simon, “Do not be afraid; henceforth you will
be catching men.” (Luke 5:1-10)
Jesus probably first realized his calling when he was
about 12 years old,
And the child grew and became strong, filled with
wisdom; and the favor of God was upon him. Now his
parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of
the Passover. And when he was twelve years old, they
went up according to custom; and when the feast was
ended, as they were returning, the boy Jesus stayed
behind in Jerusalem. His parents did not know it, but
supposing him to be in the company they went a
day’s journey, and they sought him among their
kinsfolk and acquaintances; and when they did not
find him, they returned to Jerusalem, seeking him.
After three days they found him in the temple, sitting
among the teachers, listening to them and asking
them questions; and all who heard him were amazed
at his understanding and his answers. And when they
saw him they were astonished; and his mother said to
him, “Son, why have you treated us so? Behold, your
father and I have been looking for you anxiously.”
And he said to them, “How is it that you sought me?
Did you not know that I must be in my Father’s
house?” And they did not understand the saying
which he spoke to them. And he went down with
them and came to Nazareth, and was obedient to
them; and his mother kept all these things in her
heart. And Jesus increased in wisdom and in stature,
and in favor with God and man.” (Luke 2:40-52)
From the time He first realized why He had been sent
into the world, Jesus knew that His main purpose
was to arrive in Jerusalem at a precise, exact time
and date on God’s calendar that had been prophesied
by Daniel 700 years earlier, (Daniel 9:24-27). There
he knew that he would be betrayed by one of his own,
and that he would become a sacrificial lamb for the
sins of all the world.
“…[Jesus] strictly charged the disciples to tell no one
that he was the Messiah. From that time Jesus began
to show his disciples that he must go to Jerusalem
and suffer many things from the elders and chief
priests and scribes, and be killed, and on the third
day be raised. And Peter took him and began to
rebuke him, saying, “God forbid, Lord! This shall
never happen to you.” But he turned and said to
Peter, “Get behind me, Satan! You are a hindrance to
me; for you are not on the side of God, but of men.”
Then Jesus told his disciples, “If any man would come
after me, let him deny himself and take up his cross
and follow me. For whoever would save his life will
lose it, and whoever loses his life for my sake will find
it. For what will it profit a man, if he gains the whole
world and forfeits his life? Or what shall a man give
in return for his life? For the Son of man is to come
with his angels in the glory of his Father, and then he
will repay every man for what he has done. (Matthew
Men today are no different from the Jews of Jesus’
day. We’d all like a Savior who would fix up the
externals of our lives, solve our financial and
emotional problems, deal with our enemies and give
us at the happiness that constantly eludes us. But the
Primary Mission of Jesus was much more serious and
profound and terrible. He came to undo cosmic evil
and to accomplish a permanent fix for the problem of
human sin.
The solution to human ills and to the cosmic problem
of evil could not, cannot, and did not come from
human skills, ingenuity, or from our meritorious
efforts. It is the Creator Himself who formulated the
plans—from the beginning of time—for the solution
of man’s terrible plight. Though the councils of God
are conducted in eternity “before the foundation of
the world,” in due season,
“…when the time had fully come, God sent forth his
Son, born of woman, born under the law, to redeem
those who were under the law, so that we might
receive adoption as sons.” (Galatians 4:4, 5)
God executed His plans, as He always does, according
to His own timing and pre-planning. What God did
to solve the problem of evil was to enter the human
race in the Person of the Son, as a perfect, sinless
“who, though he was in the form (morphe) of God,
did not count equality with God a thing to be
grasped, but emptied (ekenosen) himself, taking the
form of a servant, being born in the likeness of men.
And being found (schemati) in human form
(homoiomati) he humbled himself and became
obedient unto death, even death on a cross. Therefore
God has highly exalted him and bestowed on him the
name which is above every name, that at the name of
Jesus every knee should bow, in heaven and on earth
and under the earth, and every tongue confess that
Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the
Father.” (Philippians 2:6-11)
Jesus, the Son of God became a substitute for each
one of us, a sin-bearer, a reconciler. He is called in
the New Testament, “the Author (archegos) and
Finisher ( teleiotes) of our Faith” (Heb. 12:2). By a
voluntary act the Son of God chose to become a man,
to be an obedient servant, and to do everything, day
by day throughout his entire life on earth, in total
dependence upon the Father who indwelt Him.
This passage quoted above from Philippians is of
great importance to our understanding the nature of
God and the radical solution to sin God accomplished
through the incarnation of His Son. The early church
wrestled over the issue of whether Christ had one
nature or two (the problem of the “hypostatic
union”)—most Christians today agree that this
passage implies that Jesus Christ is both fully God
and fully man. Furthermore, Jesus lived His entire life
on earth by faith in total dependence upon the Father
who dwelt in Him, thus He did not, while He was on
earth, exercise His sovereign power as God the Son.
This right and privilege (that of acting as Sovereign
God), in addition to His exalted and splendorous
place beside the Father, were temporarily and
voluntarily set aside by Jesus of his own free will.
The Son of God, having become a man, grew into
maturity, through suffering and obedience, and so
came to the age where He was fully qualified to die as
a substitute for the sins of the world. Then, having
accomplished that terrible, bloody work of the cross,
Jesus was raised from the dead by the Father and by
the Holy Spirit. Forty days later He ascended into the
heavens. This same Jesus now sits at the “right hand
of the Majesty on High.” In this series of cosmic
events, Jesus has actually gained a more exalted
position in the universe than He held before. Because
of his obedience and death on the cross, He has been
elevated by the Father to the place of supreme
authority in the entire universe. This “higher state”
may be difficult for us to imagine—since Jesus was
already the Son of God before He became a man—
but such is the language used of Jesus in the New
Testament describing his post-resurrection
Chicago’s Moody Church pastor and prophet, the late
A.W. Tozer wrote these words:
“The teaching of the New Testament is that now, at
this very moment, there is a Man in heaven
appearing in the presence of God for us. He is as
certainly a man as was Adam or Moses or Paul; he is
a man glorified, but his glorification did not de-
humanize him. Today he is a real man, of the race of
mankind, bearing our lineaments and dimensions, a
visible and audible man, whom any other man would
recognize instantly as one of us. But more than this,
he is the heir of all things, Lord of all lords, head of
the church, firstborn of the new creation. He is the
way to God, the life of the believer, the hope of Israel,
and the high priest of every true worshiper. He holds
the keys of death and hell, and stands as advocate and
surety for everyone who believes on him in truth.
Salvation comes not by accepting the finished work,
or deciding for Christ; it comes by believing on the
Lord Jesus Christ, the whole, living, victorious Lord
who, as God and man, fought our fight and won it,
accepted our debt as his own and paid it, took our
sins and died under them, and rose again to set us
free. This is the true Christ; nothing less will do.”
The Seat of Original Sin
The late Arthur Custance, a gifted Canadian Bible
scholar, in his book The Seed of the Woman, (Ref. 1)
makes a case that “original sin” in the human race
may very well be transmitted biologically from
generation to generation [from Adam] through the
male sperm, rather than through the female ovum.
Custance took care to defend his premises
thoroughly. The virgin birth, Custance believed,
allowed Jesus to be born of Mary free from all sin so
as to become a “lamb without spot or blemish,”
“tempted in every way, just as we are, yet without
sin.” Scripture also speaks of Jesus as “The Lamb
slain before the foundation of the world.” If original
sin is transmitted genetically by the male sperm and
not by the female ovum, then Mary, though she
herself was a forgiven sinner and a mortal daughter
of Adam and Eve, could give birth to a sinless son
through the overshadowing of the Holy Spirit without
ordinary fertilization by her husband’s seed.
The incarnation, the life, the death, and the
resurrection of Jesus the Son of God is an awesome
intrusion into our limited space-time domain. These
events which we see as merely historic in our time
frame constitute an eternal event, a transaction
(known in theology as “the eternal covenant”)
between the Father and the Son, which really takes
place in eternity, outside of time. The prophet Isaiah
records amazing “conversations” outside of time
between God the Father and His servant the Messiah,
(Isaiah was written about 700 years before Jesus was
born) For example Isaiah 49 says:
Listen to me, O coastlands, and hearken, you peoples
from afar. The LORD called me (Messiah) from the
womb, from the body of my mother he named my
name. He made my mouth like a sharp sword, in the
shadow of his hand he hid me; he made me a
polished arrow, in his quiver he hid me away. And he
said to me, ‘You are my servant, Israel, (here the
Messiah is spoken of as the true Israel) in whom I will
be glorified.’
But I (Messiah) said, ‘I have labored in vain, I have
spent my strength for nothing and vanity; yet surely
my right is with the LORD, and my recompense with
my God.’
And now the LORD says, who formed me from the
womb to be his servant, to bring Jacob back to him,
and that Israel might be gathered to him, for I am
honored in the eyes of the LORD, and my God has
become my strength—he says: ‘It is too light a thing
that you should be my servant to raise up the tribes of
Jacob and to restore the preserved of Israel; I will
give you as a light to the nations, that my salvation
may reach to the end of the earth.’ Thus says the
LORD, the Redeemer of Israel and his Holy One, to
one deeply despised, abhorred by the nations, the
servant of rulers: ‘Kings shall see and arise; princes,
and they shall prostrate themselves; because of the
LORD, who is faithful, the Holy One of Israel, who has
chosen you.'” (1-7)
Arthur Custance’s argument about the mechanism by
which sin may be genetically transmitted is a very
reasonable one, (at least to my way of thinking), and
helps us to understand why the blood line of the
promise through legitimate heirs from Eve down
through Mary is uninterrupted, while only the Kingly
promise (not the blood line—see Jer. 22:30, 36:30) is
preserved from Abraham to Joseph.
The conception of Jesus in the womb of Mary by the
Holy Spirit interrupted the chain of genetic links
beginning with the fall, allowing a descendant of
Adam to be born into the world free from original
sin. The perfect obedience of Jesus during His life on
earth also was necessary to assure that He reached
the cross as a fully qualified sin-offering. Scripture
emphasizes the humanity of the Messiah as fully as it
does His Deity. The Old Testament is replete with
references to the Messiah as the “root out of dry
ground,” “the seed of David,” “the suffering servant of
the LORD,” and so on.
Jesus and the Undoing of Cosmic Evil
The most famous passage from the pen of Paul
describing the resurrection of believers also makes
mention of Christ’s victory over evil angels, and over
death itself. Indeed Jesus will, ultimately “put all
things under himself:”
“But in fact Christ has been raised from the dead, the
first fruits of those who have fallen asleep. For as by a
man came death, by a man has come also the
resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, so
also in Christ shall all be made alive. But each in his
own order: Christ the first fruits, then at his coming
those who belong to Christ. Then comes the end,
when he delivers the kingdom to God the Father after
destroying every rule and every authority and power.
For he must reign until he has put all his enemies
under his feet. The last enemy to be destroyed is
death. ‘For God has put all things in subjection under
his feet.’ But when it says, ‘All things are put in
subjection under him,’ it is plain that he is excepted
who put all things under him. When all things are
subjected to him, then the Son himself will also be
subjected to him who put all things under him, that
God may be everything to every one.” (1 Corinthians
The Bible is full of evidence that both the spiritual
dimension and human society are today influenced by
an active and pernicious evil agency. The old creation
has been ruined because of active evil perpetrated by
fallen angels. Both the heavens and the material
universe have become flawed and corrupted. Some of
the laws of physics we now take for granted were
evidently different in the past. Evil in the heavens
means that malevolent spiritual beings, having great
influence in the universe have access to the throne of
God and to territories beyond the earth as well. Satan
does not rule in hell, as popular cartoons usually
suggest. As the prince of the power of the air he has
access to heaven, (Job Chapter 1). As the god of this
age he rules over the fallen social order of the nations.
Satan and his hordes of malevolent spirit-beings rule
in the activities of men; however, only with
permission from God. They are completely in
subjection to God and can not go beyond boundaries
established by God. Satan’s pervasive influence of
active evil influencing all human affairs is also
temporary and soon will be coming to an end. In fact,
the doom and fate of the Father of Lies has already
been sealed in eternity. The victory of Jesus on the
cross was a cosmic, all-encompassing one:
God has delivered us [who believe] from the
dominion of darkness and transferred [translated] us
to the kingdom of his beloved Son, in whom we have
redemption, the forgiveness of sins. Jesus is the
image of the invisible God, the first-born of all
creation; for in him all things were created, in heaven
and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or
dominions or principalities or authorities—all things
were created through him and for him. He is before
all things, and in him all things hold together. He is
the head of the body, the church; he is the beginning,
the first-born from the dead, that in everything he
might be pre-eminent. For in him all the fullness of
God was pleased to dwell, and through him to
reconcile to himself all things, whether on earth or in
heaven, making peace by the blood of his cross. And
you, who once were estranged and hostile in mind,
doing evil deeds, he has now reconciled in his body of
flesh by his death, in order to present you holy and
blameless and irreproachable before him…(Colossians
We sons and daughters of Adam, who still live
constrained in time, can rest assured that a bright,
new world lies ahead for all who follow Jesus as Lord.
A just and holy God cannot tolerate the present world
situation forever. He must, and He will, intervene and
change the status Que. One such direct intervention
has already occurred, at the time of the Flood of
Noah. God’s next moves will be more grand, terrible,
and awesome indeed. He reigns over the entire
universe always, but He does not yet rule on the
earth. The day of Christ’s rule on earth is fast

Son of Man Vs Son of God

Son of man
The term Son of man occurs aprox 109 times in the
Bible, and carries with it no implication of divinity.
Rather the phrase is translated in the Hebrew as Ben
Adam or in the Aramaic as Bar Enash, which is also
loosely translated in at least 12 instances as man in
general, or humanity, the first Adamic sort of two
Adams, the created of created/made things, them of
them/us (two alls), the ye do errr of ye/you, the
imperfect of imperfect/perfect parts, child of child/
man, servant of servant/son, old of old/new, first of
first/second, and of two sons of Abraham the one to
cast out (the script-u-are saith “cast out the
bondwoman and her son”: Gal 4); allegorically
speaking of law of law/grace and lie of lie/truth in
such things are an allegory.
So “like unto Son of man” in Revelation 1,2,3 speaks
of being like unto first Adam, or them (which is
Adam in Gen 5:2), which is like unto a vessel fit for
destruction; for them of them/us is the counter part
in such a two part shew about a third part. And once
the point of such is understood, the counter part is to
be done away; Not to mention God is one, of us, with
us, for us, and hath given us the victory thru JC.
Son of man should repent: Numbers 23:19
When looking at the Son of Man in the OT, especially
in Ezekiel (the prophet Ezekiel is addressed as “Son of
man” aprox 94 times), we find such a man and his
God(law) are pretty much against everyone. Daniel is
also referred to as Son of man (Daniel 8:15-17). When
looking at the Son of Man in the NT we find such to
be sin and iniquity conscious, also vengeful to those
who betrayed him, divisional, ransom orientated, a
sign unto a wicked generation, cloudy, to be lifted up
as a serpent, hath no where to lay his head(God), is
judgmental to the point of two resurrections of the
dead unto life and damnation (Jn 5:27-29), decends
and ascends to where he was before, at the right hand
of the power(gospel) of God(law), seen of Stephen
standing on right hand of God (as if Satan), sits on a
cloud (confusion) with a sharp sickle in his hand
(word of God is “sharper”), and has a “two-edged
sword” (word of God is “sharper” than any two-edged
sword) coming out his mouth, promises 12 thrones to
12 apostles to judge 12 tribes, etc.
When the Son of Man is revealed, as a law
avenger: Luke 17:30, Jude 1:15;
Then it’s destruction for them all: Luke 17:29;
1Thessalonians 5:3; Jude 1:5
Son of God
The Son of God neither obeyed nor disobeyed any law
at all, nor imputed any sin, paid a visit not a ransom,
hath no respect of persons (all same, since all one, but
not them all of two alls: “them all” and “us all”; so he
is long-suffering to “us-ward”). That Jesus Christ is
come, but is not come to condemn any (Jn 3:17), nor
to accuse any (Jn 5:45), such that none are lost by
being sow condemned by law, which is a ministration
of condemnation. Out of his mouth comes the word of
God which is “sharper than any two-edged
sword” (Heb 4:12), and by him is only resurrection to
life. He is merciful not merciless, ascends higher than
the heavens, and is entered therein to appear for us in
the presence of God.
Son of God vs Son of God: Christ of CJ vs
Christ of JC
Clarity: Jesus Christ (not Christ Jesus) is the Son of
God: Mark 1:1. By JC came grace and truth (not law
and lie of Moses: John 1:17)). He was not sent to
condemn(law) the world (John 3:17; John 8:3-11), nor
would he accuse(law) any as Moses did (John 5:45);
No, not this; But rather “that”: that “through” him:
through Jesus (born under law, of woman) -> Christ
(the end of the law) -> God (all grace), the world
might be saved (graced) only; saved from law: sin and
death: such like: sin imputation, accusation,
condemnation, death, of law: the ministration of
No man can say Jesus is Lord butt by the Holy
Ghost (law law thereof)
For further clarity (as was the purpose of the gospel
according to Luke: 1:1-3), it is “Christ” (of “Jesus ->
Christ”) who is the “Son of God”: Luke 4:41, since
“Jesus” (of “Jesus -> Christ” or of “Christ -> Jesus”) is
also clarified as being the tormentor(law) of such law
-> grace: Luke 8:38. Such is confirmed oft, such as in
John 11:27; 20:31; Acts 9:20; Galatians 2:20;
Ephesians 4:13.
John the Baptist (Expired Law) got Beheadead
John the Baptist saw it backwards, saying that this
(instead of this -> that) is the Son of God, noting such
baptizes with the merciless Holy Ghost (rather than
with the merciful Holy Spirit). John the Baptist did
accuse(law) and condemn(law); And for such lawing
he was beheaded; Allegoric for the end of law: the age
of grace.
Back-ward of Law Grace
John also saw it backwards, portraying Jesus (1John
5:5) and the apparition like unto the Son of man as
the Son of God (Revelation 2:18), from whom is to
come wrath & vengeance, not peace nor love. John
notes a Holy Ghost God gave witness Jesus was the
Son of God. But such does not even agree with the
gospel of John: 3:17; Which is the only “verily verily”
gospel account of four accounts.
We are the body of Christ, not the body of
The “name” of the “only begotten” Son of God is grace
(Christ: the end of the law), not law (Jesus: made
under the law). He that believeth on him is not
condemened(lawed)… ye are not under the law
(Jesus), but under grace(Christ)… which things are
an “allegory”, and a “mystery” to solve in time, lest all
perish by law(Jesus) instead of none perish by grace
(Christ). ES is through Jesus->Christ.
Son of man vs Son of God
Son of Man is always associated with them, division
and destruction: 1Thessalonians 5:3; Whereas Son of
God is associated with us: 1Thess 5:9 whom God hath
not appointed unto wrath (law worketh wrath), nor
destruction which comes upon “them” who say Peace
& Safety (Grace & Law), safety in law. Not!
The law (and lie) was given by
But grace and truth came by
Jesus Christ.
God is not a man that he should lie. Lie = Law.
The Son of man is not the Son of God; For God is not
a man that he should lie(law), nor the Son of man
that he should repent(change). Notably God never
changes: I will “never leave thee nor forsake thee”, nor
does the Son of God: Jesus Christ “the same”
yesterday, to day, and for ever. It is we all who must
change, are being chanGed (as from ye to you in Jn
8:32), changed by the Spirit: 2Corinthians 3. It is we
who must take the grace walk, “from faith to faith”
and “from glory to glory”, as if first from mtn to mtn,
then even “higher than the heavens”; for God & Son
are both on Sion in two mtns of Hebrews 12. But at
Hebrews 12:1 the walk notably becomes an end “run”
unto Hebrews 13:25, as if to what’s above a servant,
or unto a more excellent way than either a broad way
or a narrow way; as the third of three.
“Lord Also” of the Sabbath = One Lord too
What’s interesting about “Son of man”, is he’s “Lord
also of the Sabbath”: Mk 2:28 (see also Mt 12:8; Lk
6:5), and Revelation takes place on the Sabbath.
However when looking at such it seems to be a
Sabbaths shewdown, also a shewdown of Lords;
which is allegorically a final final examination and
shewdown of law vs grace. Notably it was the sabbath
when Jesus made the clay (Jn 9:14). The sabbath was
made for man, and not man for the sabbath (Mark
2:27). However this sabbath is not the eternal day of
God, but the annual day of atonement, which speaks
of the “affliction of souls”, which speaks of impure
religion: law (not pure religion: grace), which speaks
of “the law worketh wrath”, which speaks of
“destruction” (not salvation), which speaks of
“them” (not us).
Contrary things cannot coexist in peace. So
there’s a Sabbath shewdown.
To better understand the twain, and the difference
between “contrary things”, consider the two ends of
the last millennium, where the first (Y2K) was the
false, fearful, and costly end; which coincidentally had
a countdown of 3 1/2 yrs (42 mos) from Greenwich in
June 1996 – December 1999. So mid trib rapture folk
missed it, not to mention both the pre trib and post
trib folk also missed it. And what followed was the
real end. With all thy getting, get it: “understanding”
= “grace glory” (Prov 4).
Lord Also? Son of Man is Lord also of the
So Son of man is “Lord also of the sabbath” (the black
sabbath of twain sabbaths); But only until one of
twain Lords is decisively made the Lord of Lords, and
one of twain Sabbaths is made the Sabbath, the day
of God (not the day of the LORD).

Jesus As The Son of Man And As the Son Of God

The two descriptive titles of the Lord, the Son of
Man and the son of God, occur in the New Testament
with nearly equal frequency. To the casual reader
they appear to be used interchangeably. Nevertheless
each has its own distinctive meaning and special
usage. That is, wherever the term “Son of Man” is
employed, the subject referred to, both in the
spiritual and literal senses, differs from that which is
treated of when the “Son of God” is mentioned. In
fact, these two titles designate two distinct phases of
the Divine manifestation, which must be clearly seen
before certain important arcana of the Word can be
At first sight we are apt to conclude that the
expression “Son of God” testifies to the fact that the
Lord was conceived of Jehovah, and on the other
hand, the title “Son of Man” gives like testimony that
He was born of woman. This view, however, is
primitive. For as we shall see, the “Son of Man”
involves much more than the fact of ultimate birth
into the world, yet the general idea of an assumption
of the human is not dissociated from it. That is to
say, the “Son of Man” is always employed to express
an idea of the Divine under finite human form. There
can be little doubt, however, but that the origin of the
title arose from the ancient knowledge that the God
of the Universe was, in time, to be born into the world
as a man. In this connection we note that in the most
ancient prophecy concerning the Messiah He was
called the “seed of woman,” (Gen. iii. 15). But so far as
we know He was not called the “Son of Man” either in
the Most Ancient or Ancient Churches, nor yet in the
early stages of the Jewish Church. The historical
appearance is that the title “Son of Man” was a later
derivation from the original expression “Seed of
Woman.” This much is certain, that the prophet
Daniel was the first to employ it as distinctly
descriptive of the Messiah. “I saw in the night visions,
and, behold, one like the son of Man came with the
clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days,
and they brought Him near before Him.” (Daniel vii.
13.) Ever after this the title “Son of Man” was
recognized as a distinct appellation of the Messiah.
When the Lord called Himself by that name, no Jew
of His day was in doubt as to the meaning of His
Before Daniel, several of the prophets, especially
Ezekiel, spoke of themselves as the Son of Man. It is
said in the Writings that they did this because of
their representative character, that is, they, as
prophets, represented the Great Prophet, the Son of
Man, who was to come into the world. It might be
argued from this that before Daniel’s time the “Son of
Man” was recognized as one of the Messianic titles.
This may, of course, be so, but to my mind the
inference is not necessary. However, Daniel’s
employment of the phrase is unmistakable. But, as
before indicated, much more is involved in the usage
of the term than the mere fact that He was born of
Mary. In truth, when that is distinctly referred to, He
is called neither the son of God nor yet the Son of
Man, but the son of Mary, by which title the maternal
human is signified, which had in itself nothing more
of Divinity than that of any other man, but was in all
respects mortal. A true conception of the subject
leads to the conclusion that the Son of Man was no
more born of Mary than was the Son of God. Both are
titles of the Divine Human, which was not only
conceived by also born of Jehovah God. Yet in this
respect there is a marked difference between the Son
of Man and the Son of God, which will become clearer
as our subject progresses.
By these two titles the Divine Human is presented
under two different aspects. Stated in the most
general form the Son of Man signifies the Divine
Human as to Truth, while the Son of God has
reference to the Divine Human as to Good. This is
seen when the subject is viewed under a spiritual
idea, i. e., when the thought of the mortal human is
The distinction here made at first appears abstract,
yet as we shall see it is most definite, and will receive
ample confirmation from the literal usage of the
terms in the New Testament. We gain a more
concrete idea of this distinction when we see that the
Son of Man refers to the Lord as the Word, while the
Son of God has special reference to His Human as
Divine. It can at once be seen that the Word and the
Truth are the same thing. On the other hand, Divine
Good in the Human and the Divinity of the Human
are one idea.
The Son of Man, then, is the Lord as to Truth or as
the Word, but we must think of the Word as
spiritually understood. For the spiritual
understanding of the Word is the true Son of Man,
even as it is the true Word. There is a perfect parallel
between the letter of Scripture and the Human
assumed from Mary, for both by the process of
glorification are put off. The letter of Scripture, in
itself, is only a verbal containant of the Word; even as
the human assumed from Mary was only a mortal
vestment of the Son of Man. Since the Son of Man is
the Word spiritually understood, or the Word as it is
in the heavens, we conclude that the Son of Man is
the Divine Truth as it is received by the angels.
Beginning with the celestial heavens, and coming
down through the successive spheres, there is an
emanation of light from the Divine. This light is the
Divine Truth in the heavens, and by virtue of its
accommodation to human minds it is called the Son
of Man, and this for the obvious reason that such
accommodation is nothing more than a clothing of
the truth with finite forms, ever more gross as it
descends through the several expanses down into the
world where it reaches its finality in the literal
We note that this descending Truth, which in itself
is Divine and Infinite, adds to itself finite forms,
whence it becomes clear that this process not only
involves but is an assumption of the human by the
Divine; for the finite forms assumed by the
descending Truth were human forms taken from the
minds of the angels. In this sense the human was
assumed from the very beginning of creation. The
actual assumption of the flesh, in time, was nothing
more than a furthering and completion of that which
was begun at the first. The Human called the Son of
Man in the heavens was assumed from the beginning,
but the deep fact is that this human was not Glorified
until the assumption had reached the last degree,–
until the Son of Man came into the world.
Then the process of Glorification was instituted from
highests to lowests and from lowests to highests.
The Human was assumed from the beginning. It
has been assumed in all times and it will continue to
be assumed to all eternity. For, under a most exalted
idea, the assumption of the human and the act of
creation are one and the same thing, from which we
draw this conclusion that the coming of the Lord into
the world was involved in and necessitated by the
first act of creation; and, furthermore, that when He
did come, it could only be as the Son of Man, as the
Divine Truth, veiled and accommodated by finite
vessels. Remember the teaching that the Lord
descended as the Divine Truth, yet He did not
separate the Divine Good. This Divine Truth, by
virtue of its finite veilings, subject to mutations and,
in the minds of men, to temptations. Hence the oft-
repeated statement that the Lord as the Son of Man
was tempted and suffered even to the passion of the
cross. He thus suffered because He was the Truth
finited, the Word become flesh. And in His person He
suffered at the hands of the Jews in order that their
treatment of the Word might be thus represented.
This touches upon the grand distinction between
the Son of Man and the Son of God, and gives us the
reason why New Testament so often speaks of the
suffering of the one, but never of the other. The point
is that Truth clothed with finite forms can be
afflicted, but not Good, especially the Divine Good
signified by the Son of God. Truth can be afflicted,
even such truth as that which is in the heavens.
Therefore the Son of Man underwent temptations
much deeper than the sufferings of the mortal
human. This human endured toil and pain even to
the anguish of death. But his real temptations,–those
by which the heavens were purified, the world of
Spirits cleansed, and the hells subdued,–He
sustained in His character of the Son of Man, the
Truth, the Word. Yet it would not be right to exclude
the sufferings of the mortal part and say that these
had no reference to the process of Glorification. On
the contrary, they afforded the material basis for
every affliction, however internal. For while the Son of
Man, strictly speaking, is the Truth in the heavens,
yet that term includes the truth in the world, and, in
its broadest sense, the body of the Lord assumed on
the earth.
For this reason we conceive that when the Lord, as
the Son of Man, was tempted, there was conflict
throughout the whole sphere of creation, for such is
the range of the truth called the Son of Man. When
He was Glorified, as the result of His final temptation
on the cross, the heavens trembled, the earth quaked,
and the veil in the temple of Jerusalem was rent in
It is said that the heavens trembled, by which is
meant that they, on that occasion, were moved from
inmosts to outmosts, this movement causing a
readjustment of all things thereof, so that they stood
before the Lord renewed. Moreover, the fact stands
out that this movement, resulting in a reformation of
the heavens, was the consequence of a gigantic
conflict. This we learn from Arcana Coelestia, 4295,
where it is said that the angels tempted the Lord and
that in consequence He fought with the whole angelic
heaven. This combat was represented by Jacob’s
wrestling with the angel. The reason the angels could
tempt the Lord was that the truth with them was not
pure. This was especially the case prior to His
Glorification. These impure truths, inflowing into His
mind, brought on an inmost conflict whereby the
supreme ends of life were touched, moved and
readjusted; for of temptations of this class, it is said,
they are the inmost of all, inasmuch as they act upon
ends, and with such subtlety as to escape observation.
The purifying of the world of spirits and the
subjugation of the hells was the well known
consequence of the Lord’s Glorification. Very many
arcana are revealed to us with reference to this phase
of the subject, which are more or less familiar. But as
to the coincident reforming of the heavens not so
much is known, and this, perhaps, for the reason that
angelic temptations can hardly he understood by
men. Yet the fact of such temptations is revealed, and
we are allowed to draw one conclusion with regard to
their effect, which is of more than passing
importance. When the Lord fought with and
overcame the devils, they were cast down and hound
forever in hell. On the other hand, as a result of His
contention with the angels, they were enlightened and
lifted up into a higher and more celestial order. This
conclusion is obvious and is confirmed by A. C. 4075,
where something of the nature of these supreme
temptations is revealed, i. e., that they had reference
to the appearances of truth and to the seeming good
which prevailed in the ancient heavens.
In this number it is said that when the Lord made
His Human Divine, He called to Himself societies of
spirits and angels, for He willed that all things should
be done according to order. We must understand that
the Lord’s mind, that is, the mind which is below the
soul, was, in its form and construction, like that of
another man in its relation to the spiritual world. But
there is this grand difference, man is brought into
intimate relations with only a few societies, while the
Lord’s mind encompassed and thus included the
whole angelic heavens, yea the entire world of Spirits.
His mind also encompassed all the hells, but did not
include them. By his Glorification they were excluded,
though in a sense they were still encompassed, for
otherwise they could not have continued to exist.
Again, there was a difference between the mind of
man and that of the Lord in this that man derives his
goods and truths from the angelic societies with
which he is associated, but of the Lord it is said that
He did not derive anything of Good and Truth from
the angels, but only by them from the Divine. Angelic
societies were serviceable to Him as instrumentalities
for receiving the Divine Life according to the angelic
degree, and in serving Him in this capacity those
societies were themselves purified and exalted. Thus
are we to understand the mutual relation and
reciprocal action between the mind of the Lord and
the angelic heavens. Hence, it is said that He called to
Himself societies of spirits and angels according to
His good pleasure, and so far as they were
serviceable. This action and reaction between the
mind of the Lord and the heavens, was as an inmost
temptation to Him, and also to the angels, because of
the angelic influx with impure truths and apparent
goods, which He resisted and corrected. On these
occasions He was most intimately moved, and they
were thrown into a commotion so great as to call for
an entire re-adjustment.
The number before us gives several examples of
these temptations, but we can at present consider
only one of them, i. e., the one which refers to certain
societies which were in love to God, and believed that
if they looked upon the Infinite and worshiped the
hidden God, they could be in love to Him. But it was
shown them that they could not, inasmuch as it was
necessary that the Infinite should be made finite by
intellectual ideas.
It is said that these societies were serviceable to the
Lord in introducing Him into their ideas, and
through them into a knowledge of the Divine Truth
itself, which was that they could not be saved unless
the Human was made Divine and thus rendered an
object upon which men and angels might look. The
point here is that the Lord was not instructed in this
latter truth by those societies, but, as said, only by
them from the Divine. Perceiving their apparent
truth, He by it as a means entered into the real Divine
Truth. And by His so doing those societies were
corrected, that is, were thrown into commotion and
afterwards were lifted up and instructed.
In this way the Lord passed through the entire
heavens as He was being Glorified. Or, perhaps it
would be better to say, that in this way the entire
heavens were passed through His mind successively,
serving as the highest human instrumentality in His
Glorification, and being by that process corrected,
reformed, and re-established into a new and superior
image of the Divine Human. This view gives us an
exalted idea of the meaning of the Son of a Man who
suffered, and at the same time it places a proper
limitation upon that in the Lord which was capable of
The Doctrine teaches that suffering cannot be
predicated of the essential Divine, for no angel or
spirit can in any degree approach this. The same is
true of the Divine Good, and of the essential Divine
Truth which, being above all appearances or finite
forms, cannot be brought within the reach of
affliction. To be explicit, that in the Lord which
suffered is called the “Truth Divine bound.” This
Truth is represented in the Word by the binding of
Isaac by Abraham. We quote:
Truth Divine when bound was what could be
tempted in the Lord…. It was this Truth that was no
longer acknowledged when the Lord was in the world,
wherefore it was that by virtue of which the Lord
underwent and sustained temptations. This Truth
Divine in the Lord is what is called the Son of Man.
but Good Divine in the Lord is what is called the Son
of God. Concerning the Son of Man the Lord
frequently declares that He should suffer, but never
concerning the Son of God. . . . “Behold, we go up to
Jerusalem, and the son of Man shall be delivered to
the chief Priests and to the Scribes, and they shall
condemn Him, and shall deliver Him to the Gentiles
to mock and scourge Him, and to crucify,” (Matt. xx,
In all of which, by the Son of Man, is meant the Lord
as to Truth Divine, or as to the Word in the internal
sense, i. e., that it should be rejected by the chief
Priests and Scribes, should be spitefully entreated,
should be scourged, spat upon, and crucified. . . . The
Lord’s rising again upon the third day implies also,
that ‘Truth Divine, or the Word, as to its internal
sense, as it was understood in the Ancient Church,
should rise again in the consummation of the Age;
which also is the third day: wherefore it is said that
there should appear the sign of the Son of Man (i. e.,
a revelation of the internal sense of the Word). A. C.
Truth Divine in the Lord’s Human Divine which
underwent temptations . . . is not the essential Divine
Truth . . . but it is Truth Rational, such as the angels
are in, consisting of appearances of truth, and is what
is called the Son of Man, but before Glorification. . . .
In order that a distinct idea may be had of this most
mysterious circumstance, it may be expedient to call
the truth appertaining to the Lord, which could be
tempted and which underwent temptation, Truth
Divine in the Lord’s Human Divine. But the truth
which could not be tempted,. . .by the appellation
Divine Truth in the Lord’s Divine Human. A. C. 2814.
This rational Truth Divine was with the Lord prior
to His Glorification. He acquired it by the ordinary
human method of learning. The Written Scripture
was His teacher. This is clear from the fact that He
began life in total ignorance and by degrees learned
all things. From first crude beginnings He
successively passed through all outward appearances
to inward angelic realities, even to the inmost,
receiving into his mind the sum of finite thought and
affection. As to this totality of human good and truth
He was called the Son of Man. It appears, therefore,
that He became the Son of Man in an even higher
degree as He ascended from lower to higher forms of
truth; that He as a man assumed the heavens to
Himself and made of them a basis for His ascension
to the Divine. The heavens served in this capacity as a
higher human than that assumed from the world of
nature, which yet was one with the worldly human,
even as a man’s internal is one with his external, or as
his mind is one with his body.
Mary clothed the Divine Soul with a material
body; the heavens vested it with an angelic mind; the
Lord Glorified both. For as to both He was the Son of
Man who was tempted and by temptations Glorified.
From this we would anticipate that the Gospels would
predicate Glorification of the Son of Man but not of
the Son of God. And such is the case. Nowhere is it
said that the Son of God should be Glorified but of
the Son of Man, Jesus said: “The hour is come that
the Son of Man should be Glorified. . . Father Glorify
Thy Name. Then a voice came from heaven, I have
both Glorified and will Glorify it again.” John xii, 23,
As it was the Son of Man alone who could be
tempted, it follows that of Him alone could
Glorification be predicated, for Glorification was the
result of temptation. And as we have seen, this Son of
Man was none other than the Truth Divine bound,
which was truth in the heavens in the minds of the
angels, or what is the same, the Truth infilling the
heavens and descending thence into the world, which
Truth was the same as the internal sense of the Word,
including also its literal sense.

Great Islamic Scholars and Some of Their Views

Great Islamic Scholars and
Some of Their Views
Heading the list of references on the Ahl al-Sunnah
are the Islamic scholars who authored the six great
hadith books collected together and known as the
al-Kutub as-Sitta (Six Books).
Imam al-Bukhari
Born in Bukhara in 194 AH he was raised by his
mother following the death of his father Ismail ibn
Ibrahim; he too had been a great religious scholar of
the time. He began studying the hadiths at the age
of seven and at ten years of age, he had memorized
a staggering 70,000 hadiths. He received instruction
from well-known scholars in Makkah, Madinah,
Nishapur and Basra; it is for this reason that his
name began to become known beyond his
hometown. Many famous Islamic scholars, including
Muslim, Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Sa‘id, have
regarded his works as an absolutely trustworthy
reference and made use of his ideas in their own
studies and their own writings. He has been
regarded by all as the greatest expert on hadiths
who has ever lived.
Imam al-Bukhari studied over 600,000 traditions;
only 7,275 of these were examined as part of his
own work. This work, the result of sixteen years of
intellectual labor, is regarded as the most reliable
collection of hadiths in the history of Islam. Titled al-
Jami‘ al-Sahih, it was later abridged by Imam az-
Zubaidi under al-Tajrid al-Sarih (Summarized Sahih
al-Bukhari), which contains more than 2,000 hadiths.
Imam al-Bukhari died in 256 AH, leaving behind a
work that would act as a guide for Muslims for many
centuries to come. His place in the honored tradition
of the Islamic scholars is engraved in stone and his
mighty efforts can never be erased.
Imam Muslim
Imam Muslim was born in Nishapur in 204 AH, and
began studying the hadiths in his early teens. Like all
great scholars, he was not afraid to set out on
voluminous journeys to seek knowledge and
wisdom; he carried out profound inquiries into the
subject by visiting Iraq, Hijaz, Egypt, and Damascus.
He benefited from sources of hadiths and other
related works on the tradition of Allah’s Final
Messenger (saas). Wherever he went, his efforts
increased him in knowledge and he openly stated
that he was most influenced by the work of Imam al-
In his works on the subject of the hadiths, Imam
Muslim employed his skills by relaying the sayings
and actions of the Prophet (saas) exactly as they
had been narrated, not altering a single letter in
case this led to misunderstandings amongst the
believers. He collected an impressive 300,000
authentic hadiths and retained only 3,030 of them in
his famous collection (Jami‘) known as Sahih Muslim.
This book is now regarded as the second most
trustworthy collection of hadiths after the Sahih al-
Bukhari. His Sahih has served the Islamic world for
hundreds of years as the second volume of the al-
Kutub as-Sitta.
His teacher Abdul Wahhab al-Farra’ is reported as
saying this about him:
“Muslim is a scholar of the people and a repertory of
knowledge. I know nothing about him that is not
Imam al-Tirmidhi
Imam al-Tirmidhi was born in 209 AH in Termez
(Tirmidh), in Transoxiana. Despite receiving
instruction in Khorasan, Iraq, and Hijaz, his main
education took place in Bukhara; this was also the
birthplace of Imam al-Bukhari. Indeed, he received
instruction in the hadiths from al-Bukhari and
Al-Tirmidhi did not restrict himself to collecting
traditions, but also contributed to the development
of the knowledge of Hadith. His Sunan al-Tirmidhi
contains 3,962 hadiths. This book is regarded as
another of the most reliable works on the subject.
The greatest difference between the Sunan al-
Tirmidhi and other hadith collections is its orderly
arrangement of subjects. Every topic, great or small,
is considered separately in such a way that no
confusion can arise between them. His ability to
collate works and then organize them in a manner
which makes the search for knowledge easier for the
Muslim reader is one of his greatest qualities. Al-
Tirmidhi also wrote the first book about the life of
the Companions.
Abu Dawud
Abu Dawud was born in 202 AH. Like al-Bukhari and
Muslim, he traveled to almost all of the Islamic lands
of his time and was taught by more than fifty
scholars. He made use of the works of al-Bukhari
and Muslim. When he completed his own works,
other people researching the hadiths made use of
the works of Abu Dawud. He was appreciated by the
Islamic ulama on many matters and pointed out as a
scholar acting with his knowledge.
From a total of 500,000 hadiths, he included 4,800 in
his work known as the Sunan Abu Dawud. In
selecting hadiths, he gave pride of place to those
concerning rulings and matters of legality. His works
have also received widespread acceptance among
researchers from different schools.
Imam al-Nasa’i
Imam al-Nasa’i was born in Khorasan in 225 AH. He
traveled through the centers of Islamic learning and
received instruction on hadiths from a great many
scholars. His works have survived down to the
present day and are still used as reference books all
over the world by Muslims and non-Muslim studiers
of the Islamic traditions.
On his arrival in Damascus from Egypt he was
subjected to pressure from the Umayyad
administration and was martyred as the result of this
horrid torture. His tomb is said to lie between the
hills of Safa and Marwah, although this is not an
established fact by any means.
His work al-Mujtaba is considered a more delicate
and intricate collection than others on the subject of
the hadiths; it is the third volume in the al-Kutub as-
Ibn Majah
Ibn Majah was born in Qazwin in 209 AH. Like other
scholars of hadith, he traveled to Khorasan, Basra,
Makkah, Damascus and Egypt in order to reach a
high standard in the science of hadith studies. As
well as the Sunan Ibn Majah, he also wrote other
texts on history and tafsir. His most well-known book
is regarded as the sixth volume in the al-Kutub as-
Sitta. Some scholars, however, regard Imam Malik’s
al-Muwatta’ as the sixth volume.
Of the 4,341 hadiths in the Sunan ibn Majah, 1,339
are used only by Imam Maja in his own work and by
nobody else in their respective works.
Imam al-Ghazali
Hujjat al-Islam Abu Hamed Muhammad ibn
Muhammad al-Ghazali is one of the greatest figures
in fiqh and tasawwuf in the entire history of Islam.
He was born in Tus, modern-day Iran, in 450 AH
(1058 CE). Although his father was not well-off, great
pains were taken by his noble parents to make sure
he was provided with a good upbringing.
Having completed his studies in Tus, al-Ghazali
moved to Gurgan to continue his education. The
shaking of political authority in Anatolia also
affected al-Ghazali. As a result, he migrated to
Nishapur, becoming the student of the famous
scholar Abu al Ma‘ali al-Juwayni. Following the death
of his teacher, he was appointed by Nizam al-Mulk
Tusi as chief professor in the Nizamiyya madrassah.
Within a short space of time, al-Ghazali was able to
make his voice heard among the people, and the
number of his students began rising with every
passing day.
He left the madrassah as the result of an illness he
suffered in 488 AH, and spent the next decade away
from the public gaze. Immediately after this period
he returned to his students in Baghdad and began
teaching them from his own work, Ihya’ al-‘Ulum al-
Din. When the unity of the Muslims in Anatolia
wavered, he was recalled to Tus by the Seljuk vizier.
Under the patronage of Sultan Sanjar, all available
opportunities were placed at his disposal over the
next twelve years. He continued to occupy himself
with learning and preaching until the last day of his
life in 505 AH (1111 CE).
Imam al-Ghazali’s ideas represented a turning point
in the history of Islamic thought. In the late years of
his life, he waged a struggle against those ideas
which were intrinsically opposed to those of the Ahl
al-Sunnah and he eliminated several tendencies
which he strongly believed would lead Muslims onto
the wrong road.
Al-Ghazali wrote in one of his books:
“As we have said on the subject of the title of
Muslim, there is an example and a sign in the
essence of marafat (cognizance), and this is
understood by those possessing it. Nobody apart
from those who have no dealings with this world,
who do not actively occupy themselves with it and
who spend their lives seeking and desiring nothing
but Allah can seek this truth. This is a long and
difficult endeavor. Let us therefore indicate that
which is the food of all. This is the creed of the Ahl
al-Sunnah. For those who hold this belief in their
hearts, it will be the seed of bliss and

posted by Team Napres

The 40 Greatest Theologians Throughout History

The 40 Greatest Theologians
Throughout History

Throughout history, there have been a large number of
people who have contributed significantly to our
understanding of God and how He works. These
theologians have shed light on religious and spiritual
matters, and even directed the course of human
history. Learning about these theologians can be a
great way to help you find out more about your own
If you are interested in learning more about theology
and spiritual traditions, you can read the words of the
great theologians. Often, we focus on Christian
theologians, since here in the West Christian theology
has had a profound influence on society. This list
focuses mostly on great Christian theologians, but also
includes some influential non-Christian theologians.
Here are 40 great theologians from throughout history:
Early Christian Theologians
Technically, early Christianity is considered as
Christianity prior to 325 A.D. However, for the purpose
of this list, the theologians included are those up
through the Reformation. Early Christian theologians
helped shape the course of Christianity for the course
of history.
1. St. Ignatius of Antioch: Also known as Theophorus is
considered on of the Apostolic Fathers, and was the
third bishop of Antioch. His letters have been preserved
as evidence of early Christian theology.
2. Polycarp: Another influential father of Christianity. His
exhortations to avoid materialism are considered part
of Christian theology, and he was enthusiastic in
combating heresies. His martyrdom is considered one
of the defining points of Christianity.
3. Clement of Alexandria: Clement was known for his
combination of Greek philosophical traditions with
Christian doctrine.
4. Saint Augustine: One of the most authoritative figures
in Christian theology is Saint Augustine, who
successfully completed the merger of Greek
philosophical practice and Judeo-Christian religious
traditions. His treatises on authority and other
theological issues have influenced Christian tradition
for centuries.
5. Saint Jerome: Widely considered one of the most
learned of church fathers, Jerome translated the Bible
into Latin, providing one of the most important texts in
the Catholic church.
6. Gregory the Great: This pope was very influential as a
theologian who revised worship and wrote prolifically
about theology and spirituality.
7. Bernard of Clairvaux: This advisor to five different
popes wrote eloquently about different matters of
doctrine, especially on the love of God, and on humility.
8. Francis of Assisi: This saint became devoted to
austerity after making some wild choices in his youth.
He is one of the most well-known theologians, and had
much to do with the development different orders
within the Catholic church.

Reformation Theologians
The Reformation is generally considered to last from
1517 to 1648. This was a time period marked by
transformative theology. Learning about reformation
theologians can help you find out more about your
faith and spirituality.
9. Martin Luther: Many religious scholars pinpoint the
beginning of the Reformation from when Martin Luther
nailed the 95 Theses to the door of church. Luther
directed religious thought for centuries.
10. John Calvin: A French reformist who broke with the
Catholic church and helped with Protestant reform
efforts, influencing Christian theology and religion.
11. John Knox: Brought the Reformation to Scotland, and
rose in the ranks of the Church of England, contributing
to the Book of Common Prayer.
12. Teresa of Avila: This saint reformed Carmelite nuns,
and was a prominent theological thinker, and apologist
for Catholicism.
13. John Hooker: Theologian who was instrumental in bring
reason and tolerance to the Church of England. His
influence has been felt in Anglicanism for centuries.
14. Richard Baxter: One of the leading Puritan theologians,
he was a non-conformist who influenced Christianity
through his writings and hymns.
15. John Milton: His polemic writings have had a great deal
of influence on theology, as well as serving under
Oliver Cromwell.
16. Jacob Boehme: A free thinker whose writings have
been theologically influential.

Revivalist Theologians
During periods of religious awakening, theologians
often appear to provide new insights into theology and
other weighty matters of the spirit. The great
theologians of the “Awakenings” in 1727, 1792, 1830,
1857, 1882, and 1904, can provide some great insight
into the development of religion.
17. Jonathan Edwards: One of the most important
philosophers and theologians of American revivals,
Edwards focused on determination and harmony.
18. Charles Wesley: Leader of the Methodist movement,
and a theologian with a number of writings, and known
for his hymns.
19. John Wesley: Like his brother Charles, John Wesley was
known as a religious thinker who helped lead the
Methodist movement.
20. George Whitefield: This revivalist helped bring the
Great Awakening to Britain and influential in the
evangelical movement.
21. William Booth: Founder of the Salvation Army, and a
theologian instrumental in providing aid to those who
needed it. The Salvation Army is well-known
throughout the world.
22. Joseph Smith, Jr.: Founder of the Latter-day Saint
movement, Smith was known for his new theology for
that time. He was inspired by the revivals of the Second
Great Awakening.
23. William Burt Pope: Theologian focusing on the “big
picture” of Christianity, and a linguist who translated
different works.
24. Soren Kierkegaard: A prominent theologian that
focused on the practice of Christianity. Considered one
of the first existentialists.

Modern Theologians
Even today, Christianity is changing. Theologians offer
insight into the word of God, and new ideas about
religion are always emerging. You can keep up with the
latest in understanding religion and God with some of
the modern theologians.
25. Karl Barth: The father of “neo-orthodoxy” and
influential in the movement to reject theological
26. Gordon Clark: Well-known American philosopher and
theologian, his ideas of scripturalism have influenced
modern Christian thinking.
27. C.S. Lewis: One of the most well-known modern
Christian theologians. Also known for his fiction, much
of which contains Christian undertones.
28. Joseph Ratzinger: The current pope, Benedict XVI, is a
well-known academic and theologian who continues to
influence the direction of the Catholic church.
29. John Stott: A noted leader of the modern evangelical
movement worldwide, and a theologian whose writings
are influential.
30. Albert Schweitzer: Medical missionary and religious
philosopher who challenged many commonly held
views from skeptics and Christians alike. He was
awarded a Nobel prize in philosophy.
31. Marilyn McCord Adams: Prominent religious
philosopher looking into theology, and teaching
philosophy to the next generation of theologians.
32. Elizabeth Stuart: A feminist theologist specializing in
queer theology.

Non-Christian Theologians
Other religions have their own theologians as well. If
you are interested in understanding the teachings of
other spiritual traditions, and if you want to understand

other ideas of religion and deity, you can learn from
some of these great historical theologians.
33. Abraham Joshua Heschel: One of the leading Jewish
theologians of the 20th Century.
34. Rachel Adler: An influential Jewish theologian, focusing
especially on gender issues and Jewish law.
35. Prophet Muhammad: The founder of Islam is
considered one of the foremost theologians in the
world — someone whose view of theology has shaped
the world for centuries.
36. Leila Ahmed: The first women’s studies professor at
Harvard Divinity School, Ahmed is interested in gender
studies in Islam.
37. Buddha: While possibly not truly a theologian,
Buddha’s spiritual teachings nevertheless have
influenced millions of people through centuries.
38. Ketut Wiana: One of the foremost scholars of Hindu
theology in the world today, and an expert Agama
Hindu Dharma.
39. Baháu’lláh: This Persian nobleman and theologian is
the founder of the Baha’i faith — someone who has
influenced spiritual thinking for the past 150 years.
40. Confucius: While Confucianism doesn’t espouse a
specific theology, there are spiritual elements involved,
and his thoughts on spirituality, and metaphysics have
been influential over thousands of years.

posted by Team Napres

Top 10 Greatest Philosophers in History

This list examines the influence, depth of insight and
wide-reaching interest across many subjects of
various “lovers of wisdom,” and ranks them
accordingly. It should be noted, first and foremost,
that philosophy in its traditional sense was science –
philosophers (like Aristotle) used rationality to come
to scientific knowledge of the world around us. It was
not until relatively modern times that philosophy was
considered to be separate from the physical
10 John Locke
The most important thinker of modern politics is the
most directly responsible for Thomas Jefferson’s
rhetoric in the Declaration of Independence, and the
rhetoric in the U. S. Constitution. Locke is referred to
as the “Father of Liberalism,” because of his
development of the principles of humanism and
individual freedom, founded primarily by #1. It is
said that liberalism proper, the belief in equal rights
under the law, begins with Locke. He penned the
phrase “government with the consent of the
governed.” His three “natural rights,” that is, rights
innate to all human beings, were and remain “life,
liberty, and estate.”
He did not approve of the European idea of nobility
enabling some to acquire land through lineage,
while the poor remained poor. Locke is the man
responsible, through Jefferson primarily, for the
absence of nobility in America. Although nobility and
birthrights still exist in Europe, especially among the
few kings and queens left, the practice has all but
vanished. The true democratic ideal did not arrive in
the modern world until Locke’s liberal theory was
taken up.
9 Epicurus
Epicurus has gotten a bit of an unfair reputation over
the centuries as a teacher of self-indulgence and
excess delight. He was soundly criticized by a lot of
Christian polemicists (those who make war against
all thought but Christian thought), especially during
the Middle Ages, because he was thought to be an
atheist, whose principles for a happy life were
passed down to this famous set of statements:
“Don’t fear god; don’t worry about death; what is
good is easy to get; what is terrible is easy to
He advocated the principle of refusing belief in
anything that is not tangible, including any god. Such
intangible things he considered preconceived
notions, which can be manipulated. You may think of
Epicureanism as “no matter what happens, enjoy
life, because you only get one and it doesn’t last
long.” Epicurus’s idea of living happily centered on
just treatment of others, avoidance of pain and living
in such a way as to please oneself, but not to
overindulge in anything.
He also advocated a version of the Golden Rule, “It is
impossible to live a pleasant life without living wisely
and well and justly (agreeing ‘neither to harm nor be
harmed’), and it is impossible to live wisely and well
and justly without living a pleasant life. “Wisely,” at
least for Epicurus, would be avoidance of pain,
danger, disease, etc.; “well” would be proper diet
and exercise; “justly,” in the Golden Rule’s sense of
not harming others because you do not want to be
8 Zeno of Citium
You may not be as familiar with him as with most of
the others on this list, but Zeno founded the school
of Stoicism. Stoicism comes from the Greek “stoa,”
which is a roofed colonnade, especially that of the
Poikile, which was a cloistered piazza on the north
side of the Athenian marketplace, in the 3rd Century
BC. Stoicism is based on the idea that anything
which causes us to suffer in life is actually an error in
our judgment, and that we should always have
absolute control over our emotions. Rage, elation,
depression are all simple flaws in a person’s reason,
and thus, we are only emotionally weak when we
allow ourselves to be. Put another way, the world is
what we make of it.
Epicureanism is the usual school of thought
considered the opposite of Stoicism, but today many
people mistake one for the other or combine them.
Epicureanism argues that displeasures do exist in
life and must be avoided, in order to enter a state of
perfect mental peace (ataraxia, in Greek). Stoicism
argues that mental peace must be acquired out of
your own will not to let anything upset you. Death is
a necessity, so why feel depressed when someone
dies? Depression doesn’t help. It only hurts. Why get
enraged over something? The rage will not result in
anything good. And so, in controlling one’s emotions,
a state of mental peace is brought about. Of
importance is to shun desire: you may strive for what
you need, but only that and nothing more. What you
want will lead to excess, and excess doesn’t help,
but hurts.
7 Avicenna
His full name is Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn
Sīnā, the last two words of which were Latinized into
the more common form in Western history. He lived
in the Persian Empire from c. 980 AD to 1037. The
Dark Ages were not so dark. Aside from his stature as
a philosopher, he was also the world’s preeminent
physician during his life. His two most well known
works today are The Book of Healing (which has
nothing to do with physical medicine) and The
Canon of Medicine, which was his compilation of all
known medical knowledge at that time.
Influenced primarily by #1, his Book of Healing deals
with everything from logic, to math, to music, to
science. He proposed in it that Venus is closer than
the Sun to Earth. Imagine not knowing that for a fact.
The Sun looks a lot closer than Venus, but he got it
right. He rejected astrology as a true science, since
everything in it is based on conjecture, not evidence.
He theorized that some fluid deep underground was
responsible for the fossilization of bone and wood,
arguing that “a powerful mineralizing and petrifying
virtue which arises in certain stony spots, or
emanates suddenly from the earth during
earthquake and subsidences…petrifies whatever
comes into contact with it. As a matter of fact, the
petrifaction of the bodies of plants and animals is
not more extraordinary than the transformation of
This is not correct, but it’s closer than you might
believe. Petrifaction can occur in any organic
material, and involves the material, most notably
wood, being impregnated by silica deposits,
gradually changing from its original materials into
stone. Avicenna is the first to describe the five
classical senses: taste, touch, vision, hearing and
smell. He may have been the world’s first systematic
psychologist, in a time when people suffering from a
mental disorder were said to be possessed by
demons. Avicenna argued that there were somatic
possibilities for recovery inherent in all aspects of a
person’s body, including the brain.
John Stuart Mill’s five methods for inductive logic
stem mostly from Avicenna, who first expounded on
three of them: agreement, difference and
concomitant variation. It would take too long to
explain them in this list, but they are all forms of
syllogisms, and every philosopher and student of
philosophy is familiar with them from the beginning
of education in the subject. They are critical to the
scientific method, and whenever someone forms a
statement as a syllogism, s/he is using at least one
of the methods.
6 Thomas Aquinas
Thomas will forever be remembered as the guy who
supposedly proved the existence of God by arguing
that the Universe had to have been created by
something, since everything in existence has a
beginning and an end. This is now referred to as the
“First Cause” argument, and all philosophers after
Thomas have wrestled with proving or disproving the
theory. He actually based it on the notion of “ού
κινούμενον κινεῖ,” of #1. The Greek means “one
who moves while not moving” – or “the unmoved
Thomas founded everything he postulated firmly in
Christianity, and for this reason, he is not universally
popular, today. Even Christians consider that, since
he derived all his ethical teachings from the Bible,
Thomas is not independently authoritative of any of
those teachings. But his job, in teaching the common
people around him, was to get them to understand
ethics without all the abstract philosophy. He
expounded on #2′s principles of what we now call
“cardinal virtues:” justice, courage, prudence and
temperance. He was able to reach the masses with
this simple, four-part instruction.
He made five famous arguments for the existence of
God, which are still discussed hotly on both sides:
theist and atheist. Of those five, which he intended
to define the nature of God, one is called “the unity
of God,” which is to say that God is not divisible. He
has essence and existence, and these two qualities
cannot be separated. Thus, if we are able to express
something as possessing two or more qualities, and
cannot separate the qualities, then the statement
itself proves that there is a God, and Thomas’s
example is the statement, “God exists,” in which
statement subject and predicate are identical.
5 Confucius
Master Kong Qiu, as his name translates from
Chinese, lived from 551 to 479 BC, and remains the
most important single philosopher in Eastern history.
He espoused significant principles of ethics and
politics, in a time when the Greeks were espousing
the same things. We think of democracy as a Greek
invention, a Western idea, but Confucius wrote in his
Analects that “the best government is one that rules
through ‘rites’ and the people’s natural morality,
rather than by using bribery and coercion. This may
sound obvious to us today, but he wrote it in the
early 500s to late 400s BC. It is the same principle of
democracy that the Greeks argued for and
developed: the people’s morality is in charge;
therefore, rule by the people.
Confucius defended the idea of an Emperor, but also
advocated limitations to the emperor’s power. The
emperor must be honest and his subjects must
respect him, but he must also deserve that respect.
If he makes a mistake, his subjects must offer
suggestions to correct him, and he must consider
them. Any ruler who acted contrary to these
principles was a tyrant, and thus a thief more than a
Confucius also devised his own, independent version
of the Golden Rule, which had existed for at least a
century in Greece before him. His phrasing was
almost identical, but then furthered the idea: “What
one does not wish for oneself, one ought not to do to
anyone else; what one recognizes as desirable for
oneself, one ought to be willing to grant to others.”
The first statement is in the negative, and
constitutes a passive desire not to harm others. The
second statement is much more important,
constituting an active desire to help others. The only
other philosopher of antiquity to advocate the
Golden Rule in the positive form is Jesus of Nazareth.
4 Rene Descartes
Descartes lived from 1596 to 1650, and today he is
referred to as “the Father of Modern Philosophy.” He
created analytical geometry, based on his now
immortal Cartesian coordinate system, immortal in
the sense that we are all taught it in school, and that
it is still perfectly up-to-date in almost all branches of
mathematics. Analytical geometry is the study of
geometry using algebra and the Cartesian
coordinate system. He discovered the laws of
refraction and reflection. He also invented the
superscript notation still used today to indicate the
powers of exponents.
He advocated dualism, which is very basically
defined as the power of the mind over the body:
strength is derived by ignoring the weaknesses of
the human physique and relying on the infinite
power of the human mind. Descartes’s most famous
statement, now practically the motto of
existentialism: “Je pense donc je suis;” “Cogito,
ergo sum;” “I think, therefore I am.” This is not
meant to prove the existence of one’s body. Quite
the opposite, it is meant to prove the existence of
one’s mind. He rejected perception as unreliable,
and considered deduction the only reliable method
for examining, proving and disproving anything.
He also adhered to the Ontological Argument for the
Existence of a Christian God, stating that, because
God is benevolent, Descartes can have some faith in
the account of reality his senses provide him, for God
has provided him with a working mind and sensory
system and does not desire to deceive him. From
this supposition, however, Descartes finally
establishes the possibility of acquiring knowledge
about the world based on deduction and perception.
In terms of the study of knowledge therefore, he can
be said to have contributed such ideas as a rigorous
conception of foundationalism (basic beliefs) and
the possibility that reason is the only reliable method
of attaining knowledge.
3 Paul of Tarsus
The wild card of this list, but give him fair
consideration. Paul accomplished more with the few
letters we have of his, to various churches in Asia
Minor, Israel and Rome, than any other mortal
person in the Bible, except Jesus himself. Jesus
founded Christianity. But without Paul, the religion
would have died in a few hundred years at best, or
remained too insular to invite the entire world into its
faith, as Jesus wanted.
Paul had more than one falling out with Peter,
primarily among the other Disciples. Peter insisted
that at least one or two of the Jewish traditions
remain as requirements, along with faith in Jesus, for
one to be counted as Christian. Paul insisted that
faith in Jesus is all that is required, and neither
circumcision, refusal of certain foods or any other
Jewish custom was necessary, because the world
was now, and forevermore, under a state of Grace in
Jesus, not a state of Law according to Moses. This
principle of a state of grace, which is now central to
all sects of Christianity, was Paul’s idea (if not
Jesus’s), as was the concept of God’s moral law (in
Ten Commandments) being innately understood by
all men once they reach the age of reason, by which
law God will hold all men accountable on his Day of
He is especially impressive to have systematized
these principles flawlessly, having never met Jesus
in person, and in direct opposition to Peter and
several other Disciples. Many theologists and experts
on Christianity and its history even call Paul, and not
Jesus, the founder of Christianity. That may be going
a bit too far, but keep in mind that the Disciples
intended to keep Christianity for themselves, as the
proper form of Judaism, to which only Jews could
convert. Anyone could symbolically become a Jew by
circumcision and obedience of the Mosaic Laws
(every one of them, not just the Big Ten). Paul
argued against this, stating that as Christ was the
absolute greatest good that the world would ever
see, and Almighty because he and the Father are
one, then the grace of Christ is sufficiently powerful
to save anyone from his or her sin, whether Jewish,
Gentile or anything else. If the religion were to have
lasted to present day without Paul’s letters
championing the grace of Christ over the Law of
Moses, Christianity would just a minor sect of
2 Plato
Plato lived from c. 428 to c. 348 BC, and founded the
Western world’s first school of higher education, the
Academy of Athens. Almost all of Western
philosophy can be traced back to Plato, who was
taught by Socrates, and preserved through his own
writings, some of Socrates’s ideas. If Socrates wrote
anything down, it has not survived directly. Plato and
Xenophon, another of his students, recounted a lot
of his teachings, as did the playwright Aristophanes.
One of Plato’s most famous quotations concerns
politics, “Until philosophers rule as kings or those
who are now called kings and leading men genuinely
and adequately philosophize, that is, until political
power and philosophy entirely coincide, while the
many natures who at present pursue either one
exclusively are forcibly prevented from doing so,
cities will have no rest from evils…nor, I think, will the
human race.” What he means is that any person(s)
in control of a nation or city or city-state must be
wise, and that if they are not, then they are
ineffectual rulers. It is only through philosophy that
the world can be free of evils. Plato’s preferred
government was one of benevolent aristrocrats,
those born of nobility, who are well educated and
good, who help the common people to live better
lives. He argued against democracy proper, rule by
the people themselves, since in his view, a
democracy had murdered his teacher, Socrates.
Plato’s most enduring theory, if not his political
theories, is that of “The Forms.” Plato wrote about
these forms throughout many of his works, and
asserted, by means of them, that immaterial
abstractions possess the highest, most fundamental
kind of reality. All things of the material world can
change, and our perception of them also, which
means that the reality of the material world is
weaker, less defined than that of the immaterial
abstractions. Plato argued that something must
have created the Universe. Whatever it is, the
Universe is its offspring, and we, living on Earth, our
bodies and everything that we see and hear and
touch around us, are less real than the creator of the
Universe, and the Universe itself. This is a foundation
on which #4 based his understanding of
1 Aristotle
Aristotle topped another of this lister’s lists, heading
the category of philosophy, so his rank on this one is
not entirely surprising. But consider that Aristotle is
the first to have written systems by which to
understand and criticize everything from pure logic
to ethics, politics, literature, even science. He
theorized that there are four “causes”, or qualities,
of any thing in existence: the material cause, which
is what the subject is made of; the formal cause, or
the arrangement of the subject’s material; the
effective cause, the creator of the thing; and the
final cause, which is the purpose for which a subject
That all may sound perfectly obvious and not worth
arguing over, but since it would take far too long for
the purpose of a top ten list to expound on classical
causality, suffice to say that all philosophers since
Aristotle have had something to say on the matter,
and absolutely everything that has been said, and
perhaps can be said, is, or must be, based on
Aristotle’s system of it: it is impossible to discuss
causality without using or trying to debunk Aristotle’s
Aristotle is also the first person in Western history to
argue that there is a hierarchy to all life in the
Universe; that because Nature never did anything
unnecessary as he observed, then in the same way,
this animal is in charge of that animal, and likewise
with plants and animals together. His so-called
“ladder of life” has eleven rungs, at the top of which
are humans. The Medieval Christian theorists ran
with this idea, extrapolating it to the hierarchy of God
with Man, including angels. Thus, the angelic
hierarchy of Catholicism, usually thought as a purely
Catholic notion, stems from Aristotle, who lived and
died before Jesus was born. Aristotle was, in fact, at
the very heart of the classical education system
used through the Medieval western world.
Aristotle had something to say on just about every
subject, whether abstract or concrete, and modern
philosophy almost always bases every singleprinciple, idea, notion or “discovery” on a teaching of Aristotle. His principles of ethics were founded on the concept of doing good, rather than merely being good. A person may be kind, merciful, charitable,etc., but until he proves this by helping others, his goodness means precisely nothing to the world, in which case it means nothing to himself. We could go on about Aristotle, of course, but this list has gone on long enough. Honorable mentions are very many, so list them as you like.

posted by Team Napres

The students of Bayero University in Kano state North West Nigeria have taken to the street in protest of the on-going ASUU strike

The students of Bayero University in
Kano state North West Nigeria have
taken to the street in protest of the
on-going ASUU strike, as the students
have asked the federal government to
give ASUU what it has demanded
within a week.
Though, the students were restricted to the
university gate in a peaceful protest staged
in support of the ASUU, they say they will
not stop, neither will they retreat nor
surrender until the federal government
honours its agreement with ASUU which
will eventually take them back to classes.
President of the Student Union
Government in Bayero University Kano,
Comrade Muhammed Sani says they have
waited for so long and students’ academic
calendar has been affected by the strike
action, but worst of all government’s
refusal in granting ASUU’s request.
Meanwhile, the ASUU chapter of the
university had to cut its meeting short, to
attend to the students
The Vice-Chairman of ASUU BUK chapter,
Abdulsalam Khalil says there is no going
back until the demands of the Union are
fully implemented.
In the meantime, the students have given
the Federal Government up to one week to
meet the demand of ASUU, the failure of
which they say will resort to a nationwide
students protest.
It will be recalled that lecturers, under the
aegis of ASUU, had on June 30 embarked
on what it had described as
comprehensive, total and indefinite strike
in public universities across the country,
running into its 98th day today.
The President, Academic Staff Union of
Universities (ASUU), Dr Nasir Fagge, said on
Tuesday that the current strike by lecturers
of public universities in the country was a
sacrifice for better things to come.
He said unless the deficits in the education
sector, especially the university system,
were addressed once and for all, there
would be no development.
The lecturers are asking for the
implementation of some aspects of an
agreement they jointly entered into with
the Federal government in 2009.
He said that the industrial action was a
sacrifice needed to salvage the entire
economy of the country and it is
regrettable that the strike is protracted, but
the decision of ASUU to remain adamant
until its demands are fully met is non-
negotiable though uncomfortable and

NASU promise joining ASUU strike next week

NASU promise joining ASUU
strike next week
Academic Staff Union of Universities
(ASUU) in the nation’s tertiary
institutions enters its fourth month,
the Non-Academic Staff Union of
Educational and Associated
Institutions (NASU) has indicated its resolve to embark
on its own indefinite strike next week.
Speaking at the National Executive Council (NEC)
meeting of the trade union in Ilorin, the Kwara State
capital, on Tuesday, NASU’s general secretary, Prince
Peters Adeyemi, said members of the union had not
been paid for two months, despite working to keep
university system running during the ongoing ASUU
“NASU will commence its own strike next week,
because we have been working and government has
refused to pay our salary. For us, it does not make
sense to continue to keep the system running when we
are not being paid. The reason for this is not known to
Government has not paid our salary for August and
today is September 24; they are owing us two months’
salary and there is no way we can continue to do this
work on empty stomach, while they run round the
globe on full stomach,” he said.
The NASU’s general secretary, who said no reason was
adduced for their non-payment, added that “the
unfortunate thing is that they have no explanation for
non-payment of our salary. That is enough patience on
our part, despite the fact that we have our grouse
before with the Federal Government that things are not
running well.
“However, we think as Nigerians and parents, we don’t
have to unnecessarily ground the system, but if you
take this our maturity and level-headedness to mean
stupidity, then, people who complain that we, in the
university system have ruined the future of students by
going on too many strikes imposed on us by
government will have no reason not to understand, if
we go on our own strike next week.”
Also speaking, the national president of NASU, Mr Ladi
Iliya, blamed the National Assembly for fighting on their
political interest and future at the expense of welfare
of Nigerians.
The NASU president, who said the National Assembly
should have deliberated on issue of persistent
insecurity and ASUU strike when it resumed session,
described the attitude of the legislators as shameful.
The labour leader decried issue of corruption, which he
said was now an acceptable part of every transaction
in the country, both in public and private sectors of the
economy, adding that high cost of running the country
today was a result of the endemic scourge of corrupt
practices, which, he said had long bedevilled the

NUT gives two weeks ultimatum The Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT)

NUT gives two weeks ultimatum
The Nigeria Union of Teachers (NUT) yesterday
issued a two-week ultimatum to the Federal
Government and university teachers to resolve
their problems.
The NUT President, Mr Michael Olukoya, gave the
ultimatum in Abuja at the end of the union’s
meeting with teachers’ representatives across the
Olukoya said members of the union would not
hesitate to close down schools, if the two parties
failed to reach an agreement after two weeks.
He described the strike as “nationalistic, patriotic
and self-sacrificing”, adding, “We will not hesitate
to shut down the education system in the country,
if the government fails to fulfil or honour the
agreement it entered into with the lecturers.”
The NUT president described Edo State Governor
Adams Oshiomhole’s call for a complete overhaul
of teachers’ qualification as unacceptable to the
He said the blame should be put at the door steps
of employers and not teachers.
“NUT will forever be proud of all its teachers,
believing that all employment agencies are
corruption-free, disciplined and quality conscious
in their employment drives,” Olukoya said.
Olukoya also urged the governors of Kogi, Benue
and Cross River States to honour the agreement
they had with teachers on the payment of 27.5 per
cent teachers salary structure.
Also yesterday, the Senior Staff Association of
Nigerian Universities (SSANU) said it might begin a
nationwide strike on Monday, if its members are
not paid their salaries.
Mr Promise Adewusi, the association’s General
Secretary, at a news conference in Abuja, said the
strike was being considered to protest against the
stoppage of the salaries of university workers
without any justifiable explanation.
He said the strike was sequel to a letter written to
the Vice-Chancellors of the affected federal
universities and Secretary to the Government of
the Federation (SGF) Anyim Pius Anyim.
Adewusi said letters were similarly written to the
Minister of Labour and Productivity, Chief Emeka
Wogu, the Minister of State for Education, Chief
Nyesom Wike and the Executive Secretary,
National Universities Commission (NUC), Prof.
Julius Okojie.
He, however, stressed that SSANU members would
be directed to proceed on the strike if the
government refused to pay the salaries.
Adewusi advised the vice-chancellors, the SGF and
the ministers of Labour and Education to take
steps to remedy the situation.
“The non-payment of our members in the
universities, when some other federal universities
have since paid the August salaries, is viewed by
our members as an act of punishment against
them for working and this has made them restive.
“We, therefore, demand that the August salaries of
our members in those universities be paid to them
on or before Friday, Sept. 27, 2013,” he said,
adding: “Failure to pay by the stipulated date will
be regarded as a conclusive act of aggression
against the economic rights and interests of our
Also, Alhaji Mohammed Aliyu, the SSANU chairman
in the Federal University of Technology, Minna,
called on the Federal Government to pay the
workers so as to promote industrial harmony.
Aliyu said it was unfair for the government not to
pay their salaries, considering the fact that SSANU
had employed dialogue rather than embark on a
strike as the Academic Staff Union of Universities
“Government should not punish us because ASUU
is on strike. If that is what they intend to do, it
means they are inviting more trouble in the

Strike continues, says ASUU

Strike continues, says ASUU
Posted by: Adegunle Olugbamila, Kolade
Adeyemi, Kano and Damisi Ojo, Akure
in Featured, News 5 hours ago
University teachers said yesterday that their strike
will go on — 89 days after it began.
This is in spite of the intervention by Vice President
Namadi Sambo in bringing the lecturers back to
the negotiation table.
The teachers are seeking proper funding of
education and the payment of their N87 billion
earned allowances.
These are part of the 2009 agreement between
the teachers and the government. The
government has offered N30 billion for the earned
allowances and made available N100billion for
projects on the campuses. The lecturers rejected
the offer. The strike has been on since July 1.
The latest position of the Academic Staff Union of
Universities (ASUU), the umbrella association of
the teachers to go on with the strike, was made
known yesterday by University of Lagos (UNILAG)
chapter Chairman Dr. Karo Ogbinika, in a
According to him, ASUU last month pulled out of
the negotiation with the Federal Government,
which was represented by Benue State Governor
Gabriel Suswam, based on the government’s
insincerity and non-commitment.
He said the Presidency intervened, calling for
another round of meetings with Vice President
Namadi Sambo last week which, according to
ASUU, also ended in a stalemate.
The union said it was disappointed because it
hoped the Presidency’s intervention would
dampen the tension the strike had generated; but,
rather, the government was re-echoing the same
stance by Suswam, which was why ASUU withdrew
from the negotiation.
ASUU said: “After the meeting on September 19
with the Vice-President, it is clear that the Federal
Government is merely paying lip service to
education in Nigeria and deceiving the public on its
commitment to its transformation agenda.
“The Nigerian people should not be deceived. How
can there be a meaningful transformation when
the education sector is neglected and gradually
taken over by private entrepreneurs, including
government functionaries who are busy bulding
private universities with stolen funds in and
outside Nigeria. Can these universities be truly
called private?
“ASUU is assuring Nigerians that it will not back out
in its struggle to ensure that the government is
made to do what is right in the education sector.
This is a. commitment that all members of the
union have vowed to pursue to its logical
The union said it had reported back to its various
zones many of which still insisted the strike must
Hundreds of students of Bayero University, Kano
(BUK) yesterday gave the Federal Government a
one week ultimatum to meet all the demands of
ASUU or face the wrath of students.
The students, who staged a peaceful protest,
urged the Federal Government to respect and
implement the 2009 ASUU/FG agreement.
Addressing the protesters at the BUK gate, the
university’s Students Union President, Sani
Ibrahim, said they were forced to stage the protest,
“because we are tired of staying at home”. “Our
mates in other countries are in school; why should
the case of Nigerian students be different?”
“As part of the struggle to fight for our right is
being pursued, I will like to salute our students for
their patience while receiving the negative
consequences of bad governance. We believe that
the delay in resuming lectures in our universities is
not only lamentable but also devastating. We
believe even more strongly that now is the time to
let our leaders know that enough is enough and
we shall wake up and say ‘no’ to injustice being
meted out to Nigerian students.
“We also call on the government to review the
annual budget for the education sector from eight
per cent to 26 per cent, so as to ensure adequate
rehabilitation of infrastructure in our universities,
including hostels, laboratories, potable water and
constant supply of electricity.
“We are calling on ASUU to give government more
opportunity to dialogue so as to quickly resolve the
differences in the best interest of Nigerian
students. We are giving ASUU and the Federal
Government one week to sort things out and
resume lectures; otherwise Nigerian students will
look for other alternatives to fight for our right.
Education is our right and no one should take it
away from us,” Ibrahim noted.
But for the intervention of the police, who pleaded
with the protesting students, they would have
taken to the streets.
ASUU members at the Adekunle Ajasin University,
Akungba-Akoko (AAUA) insisted yesterday that they
would not return to work, until the Federal
Government resolves the issues.
This was contrary to a report that the management
was already consulting with the striking lecturers
on the need to call back the students by end of this
The union urged Vice-Chancellor Prof. Femi Mimiko
to toe the path of rule of law and refrain from any
desperate act of self-help in his attempt to reopen
the university.
In a statement by their counsel, Mr. Charles
Titiloye, the union noted with great concern the
threat by the vice-chancellor to re-open the
University for academic activities, despite of the
The union warned that it would not allow contract
lecturers or newly employed graduate fellows to
be used to resume teaching in the school.

SSANU Threatens To Go On Strike

The Senior Staff Association of Nigerian Universities
(SSANU) says it may commence a nationwide strike by
Monday if its members are not paid their salaries.
Mr Promise Adewusi, the association’s General
Secretary, said this at a press briefing in Abuja on
He said that the strike was being considered to protest
against the stoppage of the salaries of university
workers without any justifiable explanation.
He said that the strike was sequel to a letter written to
the Vice-Chancellors of the affected federal
universities and Senator Anyim Pius Anyim, the
Secretary to the Government of the Federation (SGF).
Adewusi said that letters were similarly written to the
Minister of Labour and Productivity, Chief Emeka Wogu,
the Minister of State for Education, Chief Nyesom Wike
and the Executive Secretary, National Universities
Commission (NUC), Prof. Julius Okojie.
He, however stressed that SSANU members would be
directed to proceed on the strike if the government
refused to pay the salaries.
Adewusi advised the vice-chancellors, the SGF and the
ministers of labour and education to take immediate
steps to remedy the situation.
“Our members in the effected universities have drawn
our attention to the non-payment of their August
salaries without any justifiable explanations, even as
the month of September has almost drawn to an end.
“We, hereby, place on record that our members had
long discharged their obligation as workers for the said
month and they, therefore, deserve their pay.
“The non-payment of our members in the universities,
when some other federal universities have since paid
the August salaries, is viewed by our members as an
act of punishment against them for working and this
has made them restive.
“We, therefore, demand that the August salaries of our
members in those universities be paid to them on or
before Friday, 27 September, 2013.
“Failure to pay by the stipulated date will be regarded
as a conclusive act of aggression against the economic
rights and interests of our members,” he said.
Adewusi said that the union would be at liberty to direct
members to stop work, as they would no longer be in a
position to continue to pay for their transport to work.
Also, Alhaji Mohammed Aliyu, the SSANU Chairman in
Federal University of Technology, Minna, called on the
Federal Government to pay the workers so as to
promote industrial harmony.
Aliyu said that it was unfair for the government not to
pay their salaries, considering the fact that SSANU had
employed dialogue rather than embark on a strike like
the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASSU).
He, however, warned the government not to misjudge
the union’s peaceful disposition as a sign of weakness.
“Government should not punish us because of ASUU is
on strike. If that is what they intend to do, it means they
are inviting more trouble in the system.
“We in SSANU believe that through continuous
dialogue, contentious issues can be resolved; but for
government to refuse to pay our members for two
months is a call for confrontation,” he said.

Sambo Takes over Negotiation with ASUU

Sambo Takes over Negotiation with ASUU
20 Sep 2013
Vice-President, Alhaji Namadi Sambo
Jaiyeola Andrews and Damilola Oyedele
The Vice-President, Alhaji Namadi Sambo, Thursday took over the negotiation with the striking Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU), in a move to end the lingering strike by the union.
The new development was the outcome of the deliberations between Sambo and ASUU’s delegation held behind closed doors in the State House for about two hours last night.
At the end of the meeting between the vice-president and representatives of ASUU, the contending parties refused to reveal details of the discussions, hence leaving journalists to guess if the meeting was fruitful or not.
Speaking to journalists after the meeting, ASUU president, Nasir Isa Fagge, noted that the union needed to discuss their meeting with their members and get back to the government.
Asked to assure Nigerians on early resolution of the crisis, Fagge insisted that as a good messenger, he would only report back to the larger ASUU body.
He also refused to divulge the details of government’s fresh offer.
Also speaking, supervising Minister of Education, Nyesom Wike, assured Nigerians that students would soon return to school as government was ready to make sure all the contending issues are resolved as soon as possible.
Others in the meeting include former ASUU presidents, Dr. Dipo Fasina and Dr. Abdullahi Sule-Kano.
Also in attendance were the Vice-Chancellors of Bayero University Kano (BUK), University of Ibadan (UI) and Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University (ATBU) Bauchi, Profs. Abdulrasheed Abubakar, Isaac Adewole and Muhammed Hamisu Muhammed.
The Excutive Secretary of the National Universities Commission (NUC), Prof. Julius Okojie was also at the meeting.
Benue State Governor, Gabriel Suswam’s committee had been in charge of the negotiations since the beginning of the strike about three months ago with ASUU.
Meanwhile, the Committee of Pro-Chancellors of Nigerian Federal Universities (CPC) has appealed to ASUU to end the strike and return to the classrooms.
The committee, composed by Chairman of Governing Councils, said the government had shown commitment to the causes pursued by the union by sourcing funds for the disbursement of N130 billion for infrastructure and payment of earned allowances of the lecturers.
In a communique issued at the end of its meeting in Abuja to deliberate on the lingering strike, the CPC said it had received the assurances of President Goodluck Jonathan to provide the balance of the shortfall of the earned allowances if any, only after due verification by councils on those entitled to the allowances.
The communique issued yesterday and signed by the Chairman of the CPC, Prof. Kimse Okoko, added that the government had promised to consistently make budgetary and non-budgetary funds for the revitalisation of the universities from 2014.
“However, and as we all know, appropriation of funds fall within the purview of the National Assembly and that is where we all, including ASUU will have to appeal to, to ensure that adequate funds are appropriated,”it read.
It listed the issues in the 2009 FG/ASUU Agreement, which have already been addressed.

Why You Shouldn’t Join AIESEC


I joined AIESEC in May this year regardless of what I heard about this organization. Through the years I’ve tried to develop myself, it was a great process really learnt some hard and soft skills and what it’ll take to become a leader but I also need to learn to work in a team. So I took that bold step and some may ask why did it took this long. People that want to remain in the same place will only tell you the negatives about something while they contribute less. I saw jobs came to me through AIESECers and it still does then I made a bold step to join myself.
However, if you know the good stuff about
something you experienced you must as well know the bad stuff about it. So here are 5 reasons why you shouldn’t join AIESEC:


You are still a student, one or
two years in the university, or you maybe just joined it, and you find yourself already working for some organization, having a full time job, contacting enterprises and meeting CEOs, organizing professional events, managing people, leading a
team through a certain period, being part of a team, doing plans and backup plans, thinking about how to use your resources in a perfect way. You will become a professional since a young age while you’re still in college.


Usually, normal CVs don’t take more than two minutes to write and prepare, yours will take at least hours. After joining AIESEC, with all the experience you have, the skills you developed and the things you’ve done, you wouldn’t be able to make them fit on a 2 page CV. It will be so hard for you to list them all on a single CV, it is a hard task come on.


You have prejudged a certain race, certain country or certain region? In AIESEC, you will lose them all. You will meet a lot of new people from different countries, different races and different regions in national or
international conferences. You will visit a lot of new countries and get to know their true culture. You will have friends there, and by that you will lose everything bad you have in mind about them because you will know them for what they truly are.
You will finally figure out that you were wrong and end up changing your mind about the world.


Networking is one of the most important things in AIESEC. You will have a huge network of professionals you worked with on events, you will have a network of friends you met on conferences and people you engaged by AIESEC activities. So you will have a lot of visit cards and you will a hard time organizing your contact list and that will drive you crazy.


You are still young; you want to have fun, party and live your life to the fullest. You can’t believe that you will be wearing a suit and tie and going to important meetings. You are still young for big causes and that
complicated stuff. In AIESEC, you will learn the value of volunteering, you’ll be part of a non for profit organization and will work for free, you will start believing in a certain cause, defending it and actually fighting for it. You will try to change the world and achieve peace.

The thing about AIESEC is that once you join it you go to a completely new level. You change your mindset, you will join a professional world, you will experience leadership in every action you make, and you will become an entrepreneur and have the chance to develop yourself in a Global Learning Environment. You will change lives, impact society, help people, join a cause, develop skills, become a Leader, get to be an entrepreneur, become better and seek the best for the world, for your country, for people around you and for yourself. You will become a Change Agent.

So what is your excuse not to join this magnificent world?

What’s your excuse not to join AIESEC?

Join Now, follow the link


Register online for a life changing experience.

ASUU Should Call Off Strike – Suswam

ASUU Should Call Off Strike –
By: Solomon Ayado, Kola Niyi-Eke on
September 6, 2013 – 4:51am
Benue State governor and chairman of the
federal government’s Needs Assessment
Committee, Dr Gabriel Suswam yesterday
appealed to the Academic Staff Union of
Universities (ASUU) to suspend the strike action
in the interest of the students.
Suswam who stated this in Makurdi when the
leadership of the National Union of Benue
State students (NUBESS) paid him a courtesy
visit, said the federal government had ensured
that the welfare of the striking union was
enhanced and that there was need to
reciprocate the gesture.
According to him, “the federal government has
shifted ground and so it is expected that ASUU
too should show commitment by calling off the
strike in the general interest of the students. I
think the leadership of ASUU is misleading
lecturers and students. ASUU should not play
politics with the future of the students. They
can call off the strike as the needs committee
continue to negotiate the matter.”
Meanwhile, ASUU on Wednesday night said
there was no going back on the ongoing strike
despite the payment of N130 billion by the
federal government as part of efforts to resolve
the imbroglio.

Students threaten to shut private universities over ASUU strike

Students threaten to shut private
varsities over ASUU strike
on september 06, 2013 at 1:22 am in news
By Gbenga Ariyibi
Ado Ekiti — UNIVERSITY students under the umbrella of
National Association of Nigerian Students, NANS,
yesterday, took to the streets in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State
capital, calling on the Federal Government to accede to
the demands of the Academic Staff Union of
Universities, ASUU.
They equally threatened to shut down activities in the
private universities in the country should the crisis
linger on.
The students who displayed several placards with
various inscriptions, lambasted the Federal
Government for its failure to honour the agreement it
entered into with ASUU since 2009.
File: Protesting students
Speaking on behalf of his colleagues, Asafon Sunday,
Director of Action and Mobilisation NANS, South–West,
claimed between 2000 and 2011 the Nigerian
government earned about N48.48 trillion from the sale
of oil alone, against N3.10 trillion earned between 1979
and 1999
He said the Federal Inland Revenue Service, FIRS, in
2012 financial year alone generated N5.12 trillion from
tax paid by the masses.
According to him: “With this tremendous upswing in
the revenue at the disposal of the Nigerian
government, one would have expected such to
translate to commensurate improvement in the quality
of Nigeria’s public education as well as other social
He condemned the refusal of Federal Government to
budget a reasonable amount of money to education
sector as recommended by UNESCO which is 26 per
cent of the country’s total budget.
Sunday noted that some countries with smaller Gross
Domestic Product, GDP, like Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire,
Kenya, Morocco and Botswana had budgetary
allocations to education sector as follow, 31 per
cent,20 per cent,23 per cent ,17.7 per cent and 19 per
cent respectively to 8.5 per cent that Nigeria
government had budgeted for education in 2013.
Also speaking, Steven Adara ,a student leader from
Ekiti State University, EKSU , lamented that
government officials and prominent Nigerians were not
bothered about the crisis in the public universities
because their children were in private schools
According to him: “We will mobilise and disrupt
academic activities in the private universities because
it is the sons and daughters of the rich that are in these

Notice To All Napresite

Good day fellow NAPRESITE. I want to believe the break has bn a good one and effectivily utilised. Its my delight to create the awareness of these competitions:
Each year a question or quote exploring Franklin’s relevance in
our time is open for interpretationin 1000-1500 words. The competition is exclusively for young writers, aged 18-25. The Benjamin Franklin House Literary Prize is endowed by Benjamin Franklin House Chairman John Studzinski, a leading executive and philanthropist.
The 2013 Franklin quote is: “ Dost thou love life? Then do not squander time, for that is the stuff life is made of.” Entrants should interpret this quote for its significance today. Organizer
Benjamin Franklin House Chairman John Studzinski
The awards are first prize of £750, and a second prize of £500. Winning entries will be published online by media partner, The Telegraph .
Deadline:31 October 2013
Entrants must be aged 18-25 years Entrants must provide their name, email, postal address, telephone number, age and place of study (if applicable; if they are not currently in education, they should provide a biographical note explaining their current activities) Entrants may submit only one entry; fiction or non-fiction accepted
Entries of 1000-1500 words must be sent by 31
October 2013
to info@benjaminfrankli­
Got any question? Shoot an email
to info@benjaminfrankli­


Tags: Immaterialism , Materialism, Non-materialism 2013 Philosophy Essay Prize on Materialism. The Royal Institute of
Philosophy and Cambridge University Press are pleased to announce the 2013 Philosophy Essay Prize. Entries may address the topic in a variety of ways. To what extent do theories in philosophy of logic and mathematics, as well as in metaphysics, philosophy of mind and axiology, require admitting non-material entities into their ontologies? Materialism has a contradictory, immaterialism, and a contrary, non-materialism. How might these be distinguished? How might non- or im-material entities be identified and individuated? Can non-material characteristics
inhere in material substances, and can material characteristics inhere in non-material substances? If not, is attribute dualism
(pluralism) combined with substance monism incoherent? These are among the themes that might be addressed.
Materialism, Non-materialism and Immaterialism
The Royal Institute of Philosophy and Cambridge
University Press
Winners of the Prize will receive £2,500 with their essay being published in Philosophy and identified as the essay prize winner.
1 October, 2013
In assessing entries priority will be given to originality, clarity of expression, breadth of interest, and potential for advancing discussion. All entries will be deemed to be submissions to Philosophy and more than one may be published. In exceptional circumstances the prize may be awarded jointly in which case the
financial component will be divided, but the aim is to select a single prize-winner. Entries should be prepared in line with
standard Philosophy guidelines for submission. They should be submitted electronically in Word, with PRIZE ESSAY in the subject heading, to assistant@royalinsti­ .
The closing date for receipt of entries is October
the 1st 2013.
Entries will be considered by a committee of the Royal Institute of Philosophy, and the winner announced by the end 2013.
The winning entry will be published in Philosophy in April 2014.
Inquiries Questions? Send them to assistant@royalinsti­ .


NANS plans protest to end ASUU strike
on August 28, 2013 at 1:17 am inNews
LAGOS—National Association of Nigerian Students, NANS, plans to hold a nation-wide protest as a last resort to force the Federal Government and the Academic Staff Union of Universities, ASUU, to end the protracted strike of university lecturers.
NANS’ President, Yinka Gbadebo, responding to allegations that the students’ body was not bothered by the 60-day-old strike, said the union had been employing other matured approaches to appeal to both the government and ASUU.
According to him, “NANS is not relaxed but we have decided to take approaches that don’t require us to make noise. We have been meeting with executive members of ASUU, the Nigerian Universities Commission, Minister of Education and the FG.
“We have also written to meet with the universities NEEDS Implementation Committee chairman and Governor of Benue State, Mr. Gabriel Suswan. If we don’t receive any response by the end of the week, we would issue an ultimatum and take it up from there.
“I have been consulting with all SUG leaders in the affected schools so that we would speak with one voice. Going to the streets would be our last option but we would do so to protest how long this strike has lingered

Team Napres 2013

Team Napres 2013

Team Napres 2013

Blackberry For Android

It’s Coming! Blackberry Releases
User Guides For BBM For Android
and iOS
The long-awaited arrival of Blackberry
Messenger seems to be finally here, as
Blackberry accidentally released the user guides
for BBM for iOS and Android.
Techcrunch reports that for previous BBM users
from BlackBerry, most of these details are
familiar. The apps are designed to allow for real-
time communication between contacts and
groups, the guides explain, letting users share
pictures and messages, including broadcast
messages, multi-person chats, and group chats.
Users will also be able to create BBM Groups,
where they can plan events, track to-do’s, share
photos, and chat with up to 30 people at a time,
without the need to add everyone as BBM
BBM will work over both cellular and Wi-Fi, the
latter option which is meant to help avoid data
charges when traveling.
Each user can establish their own BBM profile,
where they can choose a display picture, name,
and status that their contacts will see, and they’ll
also have a unique BBM PIN which they can
access by tapping “Show Barcode.”
This is a major move for the struggling company,
as BBM has for a long time been one of
Blackberry, and the BB10′s, strongest features. At
launch, Heins had said that only messaging and
group features will be available, but promised
that the rest of BBM will eventually make its way
to the Android and iOS versions including screen
sharing, BBM voice, and the newer BBM

Team Napres 2013

ASUU Update vangurad

FG not ready to end strike – ASUU
on august 23, 2013 at 7:00 am in news
LAGOS— After 10 unsuccessful meetings with the
Federal Government, the Academic Staff Union of
Universities, ASUU, yesterday said government was not
ready to end the 8-week-old strike, lamenting that
government displayed dishonesty and lack of integrity
during negotiations.
At a briefing in Lagos, ASUU’s President, Dr. Isa Faggae,
claimed that government had declared it would not
implement the agreed injection of funds to revitalise
the public universities, but was only making a dubious
statement of supporting some universities with N100
He said: “Government had also declared that it will not
pay university academics their earned allowances
which accumulated from 2009 to 2013. Rather, it is
talking about providing N30 billion to assist various
Governing Councils of Federal Universities to defray the
arrears of N92 billion owed to all categories of staff in
the university system.”
Narrating the union’s experience at the last meeting
with the Government held on Monday, Faggae said:
ASUU was shocked by the level of deceit, dishonesty,
and lack of integrity displayed by the Government.
Never in the history of ASUU-Government relations
have we, as a union, ever experienced the kind of
volte-face exhibited by Government. At one stage in
the interaction, the Secretary to the Government
Federation ridiculed the agreement, the MoU and the
Needs Assessment Report, mocking the Minister of
Education to “go and give them N400 billion,” at which
members of the government scornfully laughed.”
He argued that the Governor Gabriel Suswam-led
Implementation Committee was being used as
smokescreen to “deceive ASUU, Nigerian students and
their parents, as well as other unsuspecting members
of the public on the purportedly released N100 billion
for the implementation of the Needs Assessment
First, he said, government plans to divert the regular
yearly allocations to universities by Tertiary Education
Trust, TETFund, to make at least 70% of the N100
billion. This is unacceptable to ASUU. It is like robbing
Peter to pay Paul, since the idea of revitalization took
full cognizance of the intervention role TETFund ab-
“Again, contrary to subsisting operational procedures,
about 75% of the money meant for revitalizing
universities would not be released to them as the
Suswam Committee plans to hand over construction of
the hostel projects to the Federal Ministry of Education
and/or the National Universities Commission, for
implementation. This is illegal; neither the ministry nor
NUC is backed by laws of Nigerian Public Universities to
divert monies meant for the development of these
institutions into centrally executed projects.”
Dr. Faggae questioned the committee’s motives for
proposing to commit N1.6 million to a bed space,
instead of N200, 000 to N400, 000, saying, “We see a
continuation of outrageous contract regimes in the
plan to centrally coordinate the construction of student
hostels as done in the case of the 12 newly established
Federal Universities with TETFund resources. The NUC
has transmuted itself into a “Tenders’ board” which
awarded contracts for the construction of 560 bed
spaces hostel for each university at a whooping sum of
1.2 bn. This contract sum translates into N2.143 million
per bed space.”

Team Napres 2013

ASUU Update

ASUU withdraws from negotiations
with FG
Posted by: Adegunle Olugbamila in News Update
20 hours ago
The Academic Staff Union of Universities on Thursday
announced its disengagement from further
negotiations with the Federal Government, over what it
describes as the latter’s perceived insincerity in the
2009 agreement as well as the Memorandum of
Understanding (MoU) both parties signed in January
last year.
The union National President, Dr. Nassir Faggae Isa,
said at a press briefing held at the University of Lagos
on Thursday that the 2009 agreement and the MoU
must first be honoured, even if ASUU feels the need to
consider renegotiation with the government.
The union had embarked on a total strike on July 2 over
government‘s failure to honour the 2009 agreement.
Faggae said, “Consequently, our members are left with
no other choice than to prosecute this strike to its
logical conclusion. ASUU members nationwide are
saying this striker will not be suspended until and
unless the government respects the 2009 agreement
and makes concrete efforts to implement it in the best
interest of the country.”
According to him, during a meeting held between ASUU
and the government representative on Monday,
government declared that it neither had any motive to
revitalize public universities through committed
funding, nor was it ready to pay in full the accumulated
Earned Academic Allowances between 2009 and 2013.

Team Napres 2013

Latest ASUU strike Update

ASUU strike: FG to meet varsity
councils, VCs
2013-08-21 00:20:01
The Federal Government will before Sunday meet
with university councils and vice-chancellors to
update them on some of the decisions it had
reached in its bid to end the ongoing strike by the
Academic Staff Union of Universities.
The Chairman of the National Economic
Empowerment Development Strategy Assessment
Implementation Committee of the universities,
Governor Gabriel Suswam, made this known on
Tuesday after President Goodluck Jonathan met
behind closed doors with key officials of his
administration over the almost two months’ old
The officials included Vice-President Namadi
Sambo; the Secretary to the Government of the
Federation, Senator Pius Anyim; the Chief of Staff to
the President, Chief Mike Oghiadome; the Minister
of Finance, Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala; the Minister of
Education, Prof. Ruqqayat Rufa’i; and the Minister of
Labour, Chief Emeka Wogu.
ASUU, however, said shortly after the meeting ended
that the strike would not be called off because the
Federal Government was not sincere in its efforts to
end the dispute.
It was learnt that the Tuesday meeting afforded the
government officials taking part in the negotiations
with the striking university teachers the opportunity
to brief the President on the latest development.
Suswam, who is also the governor of Benue State,
told State House correspondents after the meeting
that substantial progress had been made in the
He expressed the hope that the strike would be
called off soon based on some of the mechanisms
that had been put in place to move university
education forward.
The governor said while the issues surrounding the
NEEDS assessment had been concluded to some
extent, those bordering on the earned allowance
component being handled by the SGF were pending.
Suswam said, “As you must have heard, the Federal
Government made an offer of N30bn to assist the
various councils of our universities to be able to pay
the earned allowances.
“There is also N100bn and that is why the Minister of
Finance, the SGF, the ministers of education and
labour as well as the Chief of Staff, the VP and
myself have just risen from a meeting to take some
decisions that would end the strike soon. The
President has instructed us on what to do and he
has shown a lot of commitments by starting a
project worth about N100bn in all the universities in
about 61 universities in the country.
“So we are hoping that we will be able to see the end
of the strike very soon if at the end of the day, ASUU
is satisfied with the measures that we have so far
taken .
“The Federal Government will also be meeting with
the university councils and vice-chancellors of our
universities within the week towards updating them
on some of the decisions taken.”
The governor added that the meeting with the
varsity councils was necessary because earned
allowances had to be certified by the management
and councils of the universities.
He said since the Federal Government had offered to
assist the councils with N30bn, it was important for
them to go and verify and pay the people who are
actually entitled to the allowances.
“I think that the government had demonstrated some
substantial faith . Yes, if ASUU said that this is the
amount of money that the Federal Government is
owing them and the government has shifted ground
from its initial posture, it means we are moving
forward. With a N100bn available now for addressing
the physical infrastructure deficit in our universities, I
think the Federal Government has done quite well to
have moved to where we are today,” he added.
But ASUU has said after the meeting which held in
Jonathan’s office in the Presidential Villa, that the
Federal Government was only using propaganda to
curry public support rather than facing the issues
raised by it.
A member of the National Executive Council of ASUU,
Dr. Nasir Adesola, told one of our correspondents on
the telephone that theN30bn offered to the striking
lecturers as earned allowances was even worse
than “where we were before the deadlocked
meeting on Monday.”
The government, he said, had not shown enough
commitment towards the settlement of the conflict.
According to him, the government only offered N30bn
without saying anything on when the balance of the
earned allowances would be paid.
He also said that the declaration by the government
that it had approved N100bn for the development
of infrastructure in the universities was a mere
Meanwhile, the All Progressives Congress has
asked the government to honour its agreement with
ASUU in order to end the strike which began on July
The APC, in a statement on Tuesday by its Interim
National Publicity Secretary, Alhaji Lai Mohammed,
said ASUU’s demand for N87bn was not open to
government’s negotiation.
The statement reads, ”The N87bn that ASUU is
demanding represents earned allowances hence
cannot be renegotiated.
“In any case, this amount pales into insignificance
when placed side by side the N1tr that has been
spent on federal legislators in the past eight years; or
the frivolity involved in a government minister
travelling to China to negotiate a $1bn loan in a
chartered jet (with its attendant costs) and with a
retinue of officials who earned generous estacode in
hard currency.”
It said ASUU was not making any fresh demand
beyond the agreement it reached with the
government in 2009.
“Agreements are meant to be honoured, and
breaching them comes with some consequences,”
the statement added.
The party said while the Federal Government refused
to honour its own side of the agreement with ASUU
since 2009, “it could pay out N3tn in non-existent
fuel subsidies to fat cats”.
It added that in place of ASUU strike, the Federal
Government preferred to spend N1tn annually “to
maintain the jets in the Presidential fleet and do little
or nothing to prevent the stealing of 400,000 barrels
of crude oil per day.”
It condemned the “non-chalance” of those who
should be working round the clock to resolve the
crisis, especially the Minister of State for Education,
Nyeson Wike.
The APC claimed that instead of focusing on the
problem, Wike “was launching vigilance groups and
dancing ‘palongo’ around town when the nation’s
public universities are shut and students are
Reacting, Wike’s Special Assistant on Media, Simeon
Nwakaudu, said “no administration has impacted on
education like the Jonathan administration.”
He said Wike had actively participated in the process
of resolving the ASUU crisis, with the Federal
Government team led by the SGF